Doctor Livingstone I Presume? – WABAC to Rugged Africa

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"Where is the WABAC Machine going to take us this time, Mr. Peabody?

“Where is the WABAC Machine going to take us this time, Mr. Peabody?

“I’ll be Stanley and you be Livingstone.”
“But my name in Sherman.”
“I know.”

March 21, 1871: Stanley

Begins Famous Trek

to Find Livingstone


A Man on a mission

On March 21, 1871, New York Herald journalist Henry Morton Stanley set off on his famous African expedition to find missionary and explorer David Livingstone who had not been heard from in years.  When the pair finally met, Stanley uttered his famous quote, “Dr. Livingstone, I presume?”

Into Africa…

Livingstone was a Scotsman of humble origins.  His thirst for knowledge led him to study medicine and religion as well as the natural sciences.  He became a missionary and explorer, going to places largely unknown to Europeans such as Africa and “discovering” and “naming” the Victoria Falls there.  Although lauded for his discoveries, he certainly was not much of a family man, having virtually traded his family for his African adventures.  After his wife died of Malaria in 1862 trying to follow him to Africa, Livingstone’s adventures eventually brought him into a series of misadventures that put him out of contact with civilization and in dire straits, facing danger, disease and starvation.

Stanley was a Welshman who had changed his name from John Rowlands upon moving to the United States.  Interestingly, during the American Civil War, Stanley served in the Confederate Army, the Union Army and the Union Navy before ending up in the Merchant Marine!  After the war he became a journalist, which put him on course to making his famous expedition.

Like Livingstone, Stanley was beset by thefts, desertions, disease and hunger but, unlike Livingstone, was reportedly harsh in his treatment of hired natives.  It was said that, “Stanley shoots Negroes as if they were monkeys.”

The tropical environment (Rift Lake area) explored by these two men was harsh indeed, with dangerous animals, brutal slave traders, duplicitous natives and incessant disease-carrying insects.  Still, their discoveries and reports shed considerable light on “Dark Africa” that Europeans had previously known little about.

After their famous meeting, Livingstone stayed in Africa despite Stanley’s urgings to return with him to civilization.  He died aged 60 in what is now Zambia in 1873, probably of dysentery and malaria, having been left weakened after being mauled by a lion years before and by disease.  Numerous streets, buildings, geographical features and places bear Livingstone’s name.

Stanley returned to a hero’s welcome and became quite a celebrity, writing books about his adventures.  Stanley did not stay out of Africa for long and in 1874, went to the Congo and later claimed it for the King of Belgium.  Another African expedition cast Stanley in a poorer light when the cruelty of his fellow Europeans was reported which included the “gift” of an 11-year-old girl to cannibals in order to document the killing and cooking procedures they followed!  (Supposedly Stanley did not know of this until afterwards.)

In relatively recent music, Livingstone and his adventures have been sung about by the Moody Blues and Abba (see below).

Doctor Livingstone I Presume?

- WABAC to Rugged Africa


Presidential Fun Facts

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 Fun Facts About American Presidents

It’s kind of a given that the President of the United States should be pretty smart. Despite what hack comedians will tell you about George W. Bush, an idiot can’t just walk into the White House and run the country. But even by the standards of the office, some of America’s most impressive minds could do some pretty ridiculous things.

10. Lyndon B. Johnson Could Find Out Everything about a Person


At an impressive 6 ft 3 1?2 in (192 cm), Lyndon B. Johnson is the second tallest President in history. The tallest U.S. President was Abraham Lincoln at 6 ft 3 3?4in (192.4 cm). Johnson was well aware of his height, and often used it to his advantage to intimidate or coerce both political opponents and allies. He used what became colloquially known as “the treatment,” where he would use his massive frame and dominating presence to get all up in someone’s grill before making them spill their guts.

What made it so effective was Johnson’s incredible ability to find out exactlywhat made people tick. Johnson was able to find out basically everything about a person, from how they felt about political issues to their shoe size, and could recall all of it without error and with just the right tone of voice to persuade or bully someone to do whatever he wanted. This allowed Johnson to bring even staunch opponents who totally disagreed with him around to his way of thinking in a matter of minutes by overwhelming them with his intricate knowledge of their politics, ideas and flaws.

9. JFK Knew How to Shake Hands Perfectly


Considering that John F. Kennedy allegedly slept with more beautiful women than a copy of Cosmo, it’s not going to come as a surprise that he was known as a fairly charismatic dude. However, President Kennedy wasn’t just charming and handsome — he was a borderline hypnotist when it came to influencing people.

For example, President Kennedy once commissioned an entire study on the art of shaking hands, all so that he could set the tone of a relationship from the instant he met someone. JFK’s handshake was so comforting and warming that it wasn’t uncommon for him to return after a long day of meeting people with ascratched up hand from the sheer amount of people clambering to grasp at his magical palm.

When it came to talking to people, JFK was known to be able to sway an entire crowd with nothing more than his smile, as you can see in this video of himkilling it in a question and answer session. What makes this more impressive is that JFK could reportedly turn on the charm at will, being able to influence people to his way of thinking even if they didn’t fully agree with it. We guess Magneto was right — JFK really did have a mutant superpower.

8. Teddy Roosevelt Could Read an Entire Book Before Breakfast


There’s little we could say about how awesome Roosevelt was that wouldn’t just be us repeating ourselves, but few people realize that Roosevelt was both an unflinching badass and a huge nerd. It’s estimated that Roosevelt read in excess of 10,000 books, many of which were in foreign languages because even when it came to reading Roosevelt liked to challenge himself.

Roosevelt’s inhuman ability to eye-punch knowledge came about as a result of him teaching himself to speed-read, which allowed him to quickly gloss over a book while still retaining about 90% of the information it contained. This meant that Roosevelt could read a book or magazine in a matter of minutes or hoursand hold detailed, lengthy conversations about its contents like he’d studied it for years. Roosevelt’s thirst for knowledge was so great that he reportedly read a book before he ate breakfast every single day. Kind of makes you want to finish reading that novel you’ve had sitting around for a month and a half, huh?

7. Calvin Coolidge Only Lost One Election


While Calvin Coolidge may not be the most well-known President, he’s noted as being one of the most electorally successful — in his entire political career he only lost once at the ballet box.

When Coolidge applied to be a member of Northampton, Massachusetts City Council in 1898, he won. A year later he was re-nominated but applied to be a City Solicitor instead, and won. This trend continued for the next few decades as Coolidge went from being a member of city council to a State Legislator, to a Mayor, to a Governor, to a Vice President and finally to being the President himself, winning almost every time by a landslide. In fact, when he became President Coolidge won the vote in every State with the sole exception of the home state of the guy running against him. When the time came for Coolidge to run again he politely declined, saying that 10 years in Washington was too much, even though many agree he would have won again. He retired with an almost flawless political record. The only loss Coolidge ever suffered was when he campaigned to be a member of a local School Board, because he didn’t have kids that went to that school.

6. James Garfield Could Write in Two Languages at the Same Time


James Garfield is mostly remember alongside William McKinley as being one of the Presidents who was shot but didn’t have a cool hat or nice eyes. Which is a shame, because James Garfield is possibly the smartest man to ever hold office. Garfield had an exceptionally keen mind, teaching himself to be proficient in a multitude of disciplines and subjects. After just a year at college he was teaching classes on literature and ancient language, when previously he’d worked there as the janitor.

Garfield was also known to be ambidextrous, which he would show off to friends and colleagues by asking them to pose him a question before writing down the answer in Latin with one hand and Greek with the other, all while maintaining unflinching eye contact.

5. John Adams Had a Silver Tongue


Even if your knowledge of American history is limited to whatever you managed to glean from Assassin’s Creed 3 in-between stabbing wolves, you can probably tell what happened at the Boston Massacre from the name alone. If you’re still a little fuzzy, the short version is that in 1770 eight British soldiers opened fire on a crowd of people in the middle of Boston, killing five people.

When the soldiers walked into the courtroom, almost everyone expected the sentence to be death. But with just a few words the future President was able to convince the entire jury that the men were innocent because they acted in self-defense, resulting in six of them walking free while the other two were given the equivalent of a slap on the wrist.

Just let that stew for a moment. John Adams managed to convince a jury to acquit a bunch of British soldiers charged with shooting people in the street at a time when revolutionary fervor was growingWe can’t even convince employees at Subway to give us extra ham.

4. Lincoln Trumped a 13,000 Word Speech In Two Minutes


The Gettysburg Address is one of those speeches that will never be forgotten, mostly because you could write it on the back of a napkin. Clocking in at just 272 words and delivered in a little over two minutes, Lincoln’s speech was barely longer than the previous entry on this list and yet it’s consistently ranked as one of the greatest speeches ever given.

A fact that’s often overlooked is that Lincoln’s speech was never supposed to bethe Gettysburg Address. That honor originally belonged to the two hour, 13,000 word long speech given by Edward Everett. His speech, which is regarded as a masterpiece of oration given by a man famed for his abilities as a speaker, was trumped by little more than an off the cuff utterance from Lincoln. Immediately after Lincoln gave his speech, Everett, who’d spent weeks crafting his magnum opus, knew that he’d been bested and the next day he penned a letter to Lincoln saying that he was happy to come close with two hours to what Lincoln had accomplished in two minutes.

3. Andrew Jackson Managed to Pay Off All of America’s Debts


Did you know that there’s only ever been one time in America’s history that the country’s been entirely debt free? It was all thanks to Andrew Jackson and how much he hated owing people money. When Jackson took office in 1829, he vowed that he’d eliminate America’s 58 million dollars of debt, the equivalent of paying off about 800 million today. Six years later, America was debt free — Jackson had somehow managed to pay off every cent through careful planning, frugal spending and telling creditors where to stick it.

Jackson’s feat has never since been equaled. Even worse is that America was only debt free for a year before it once again needed to borrow money. Still, Jackson accomplished something many thought to be impossible just because he really didn’t like the idea of running a country that owed someone money.

2. Thomas Jefferson Could Read Five Books at Once


When it comes to smart Presidents it’s hard to top Thomas Jefferson. An expert in almost every subject he put his mind to, Jefferson could converse with anyone about anything effortlessly. President Kennedy once famously addressed a room filled with Nobel Prize winners by saying:

“I think this is the most extraordinary collection of talent, of human knowledge, that has ever been gathered together at the White House, with the possible exception of when Thomas Jefferson dined alone.”

Nothing sums up Jefferson’s intelligence better than this, an invention personally created by Jefferson so that he could read five books simultaneously. Jefferson was a prolific writer who liked to consult multiple books while penning essays and letters, so to make this easier Jefferson created a revolving book stand that would allow him to read and consult multiple texts. We really think these should still be made so that we can see what happens if we stick 5 iPads to it.

1. George W. Bush Didn’t Need To Have Meetings Because He Already Knew It All


Just to be clear, yes, we’re talking about the same President Bush who once said “Rarely is the question asked: is our children learning?” the same President Bush who coined the term “Misunderestimate” and the same President Bush who once tried to exit a press conference through a locked door. Although pop culture has painted Bush as a buffoon, stupid people don’t get to be President of the United States. Part of the reason Bush is often seen as inept is his strong southern accent, which studies have shown makes someone appear less intelligent regardless of their educational background. In regards to Bush, while he wasn’t an amazing student he was by no means a poor one.

According to aides and people who’ve interviewed him George W. Bush is a remarkably smart man, with one interviewer describing him as “60 IQ points smarter in private than he was in public.” During his time as President, many commented on his ability to recall and absorb information with an extraordinary level of speed and comprehension. It’s said that Bush would often hurry people through presentations about complex policies because he’d already read through their notes and didn’t want his time wasted.

Presidential Fun Facts

WABAC to Women in Aeronautics – You Can’t Keep a Good Woman Down

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"Where is the WABAC Machine going to take us this time, Mr. Peabody?

“Where is the WABAC Machine going to take us this time, Mr. Peabody?

“Let’s head for 1910 France and watch the 1st female pilot get her wings.”

First Woman Issued Pilot’s License


Look up to see…

On March 8, 1910, the Aero-Club of France issued pilot license #36 to Raymonde de Laroche, making her the first licensed female pilot in the world.  Although sometimes referred to as the first woman to fly an airplane, it is likely that 2 other women had flown before her.  Note: A female aviator is also called an “aviatrix.”

Can it be?

Laroche had been born Elise Raymonde Deroche in France in 1882.  Despite the accomplishments of the Wright Brothers, the fervor over the new aeronautical industry was in Europe, not North America, and Laroche took her keen interest in the new sport to Chalons, east of Paris, where she undertook training.  When she made her first flight, it was a solo flight as the crude airplane could only fit the pilot.

Although legally able to fly, La Roche was not permitted to fly for France duringWorld War I and instead drove officers to and from the front, often under fire.

Obviously, flying was a dangerous activity in those early years, and Laroche had been seriously injured in a plane crash in 1910 and again in an automobile crash in 1912.  Not dismayed, she continued her flying and after the war, she picked up where she had left off, becoming a test pilot.  During that time, she achieved some records for altitude and distance flying.

Unfortunately, her career came to a quick and early end in 1919 when an experimental airplane she was either flying or flying in crashed, killing both her and the other pilot.

A statue of Laroche stands at Le Bourget Airport, and her feats were celebrated March 6-12, 2010 on the 100th anniversary of her earning a pilot’s license when over 225 girls and women were introduced to planes and piloting.  Women of Aviation Worldwide Week is timed to coincide with March 8 and was created to honor the contributions and accomplishments of women in aviation. (Note: International Women’s Day also falls on March 8 of each year.)

WABAC to Women in Aeronautics

- You Can’t Keep a Good Woman Down

Supernatural Influences on WIF

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Influences on Earth

Ancient Egyptian hieroglyph depicting modern looking aircraft at a temple near Abydos

Ancient Egyptian hieroglyph depicting modern looking aircraft at a temple near Abydos

 Who’s History?

Throughout history, humans have noticed and wondered about various phenomena that they could not easily understand or explain.  Though modern science has often tried to find reasons for such “super” natural occurrences, many people remain unconvinced, leaving room for speculation and wonder.  Certainly many aspects of religion might qualify as supernatural, and since the majority of people believe in one sort of religion or another, it would be logical to conclude that the majority of people accept at least some supernatural phenomena in their set of beliefs.  Here we list 10 reasons upon which people can logically base a belief in the supernatural, whether religious, alien, magical or unexplainable by the current state of science.  Are teleportation and time travel just a few scientific discoveries away from becoming a reality?  Are there multiple universes or realities/dimensions?  Feel free to offer your nominations for events or conditions that you feel “prove” the existence of the supernatural.

Look closer and you will see…

10. Ancient Accomplishments.

Some people take the physical evidence of ancient, sometimes primitive, people who oftentimes had no machines, no computers and no written alphabet pulling off wondrous architectural feats as proof of divine or alien intervention.  The Great Pyramids of Egypt are a frequent example, as are the Nazca Lines in the Andes, the Bimini Island formations in the Caribbean and underwater formations off the coast of Japan which are said to be 12,000 years old, long before civilization as we know it existed.  Much has been written on this subject, one of the earlier and most influential books on this subject is  Erich von Däniken’s Chariots of the Gods which took an incredulous world by storm in 1968 and then again as a television special in 1970.

9. Biblical Events.

Obviously, for this subject to have credibility, the person doing the pondering must believe the Bible or other holy text is basically or entirely true in the first place.  Presuming that it is, the events described therein are often blatantly out of sync with normal rules of nature.  That is why miracles are miracles, because they are supernatural, not natural.  Did Ezekiel actually see a space ship when he saw the “wheel?”  If Balaam’s ass talked to him, that is a bit special in itself.  The Assumption of Mary, the Resurrection of Christ, Mohammad lifting off to heaven, the Buddha achieving Nirvana, all these and more might have more simple, natural or scientific explanations, but not in the way they are believed.

8. Extra Sensory Perception (ESP).

Extra sensory perception is a phenomenon that  has been repeatedly witnessed by humans throughout history, manifesting itself in a variety of ways.  Examples include: seeing future events; sensing danger with no rational reason but being correct nonetheless; reading other persons’ thoughts; having knowledge of past facts that one could not know; and uncannily being able to describe what is on the face of a card when only seeing its back.  Like the other phenomena described in this list, the vast amount of evidence and number of witnesses is enough to demand consideration instead of instant dismissal.  Telekinesis, the psychic ability to cause movement,and pyrokinesis, the psychic ability to set things on fire power, if you believe the reports, would also lend credibility to this area of the paranormal.

7. Déjà vu.

Nearly every person has felt the incredibly bizarre feeling that they have seen a particular event or heard a certain sound or felt a particular sensation or smelled a particular fragrance before.  Often the phenomenon is like reliving something for a second time.  This condition is widespread and seemingly universal, definitely something to give pause to the most doubtful person.  Honorable mention to dreams, especially the ones that cannot be told apart from reality.

Nearly every person has felt the incredibly bizarre feeling that they have seen a particular event or heard a certain sound or felt a particular sensation or smelled a particular fragrance before.  Often the phenomenon is like reliving something for a second time.  This condition is widespread and seemingly universal, definitely something to give pause to the most doubtful person.  Honorable mention to dreams, especially the ones that cannot be told apart from reality. (Hee Hee)

6. Tachy Psyche or Tachypsychia.

Tachypsychia is when a person experiences a distortion in the perception of time, basically experiencing events in a sort of slow motion rather than at the speed they are transpiring.  In times of great stress, or when one is under the influence of drugs, or while experiencing physical trauma, or even through exquisite mind control, the flow of time can slow down.  I know from personal experience that I have made carefully thought out and deliberate observations and decisions in a fraction of a second.  People involved in shootings, accidents and other high-stress incidents often report this experience.  Scientists believe the production of dopamine and norepinephrine in the body causes the brain to work super fast.  Believe me, it does.

5. Twins.

The special bond between twins is now commonly accepted as being some sort of psychic connection between the two.  Science in its current state cannot account for why it is so, but twins have often reported feeling sensations their twin is experiencing even though they may be separated by many miles.  They also often seem to be able to read each other’s minds.  The most egregious violations of the privacy and rights of twins through the misapplication of “research” was by Nazi pseudo-scientists in World War II.

4. UFOs.

Far from merely being a subject for science-fiction books and movies and far from being confined to only being seen by stereotypical country bumpkins, the reports of unidentified or seemingly alien machines and life forms have persisted across history in numerous societies.  Furthermore, many credible people such as airplane pilots, police and military types have been among those reporting UFOs or alleged alien activity.  At times, scientists seem to be able to satisfactorily explain the event, but at others, they are at a loss.  Again, the sheer weight of events, despite the obvious hokey incidents, lends at least some credibility to the idea that aliens exist, have existed, and have in one way or another visited Earth or sent reconnaissance vehicles here.  Incidents that national governments acknowledge as being unexplainable are often attributed as being “supernatural” or alien in nature.

3. Near-Death Experiences.

So many people have “died” but came back after a brief period in which everything indicated that they were dead.  These people often report the same or at least very similar experiences, giving persuasive evidence of an afterlife.  The sense of leaving one’s body, the bright light, the visions of loved ones who had already departed and the overwhelming feeling of comfort run like a common thread through the reports.  People who have reported near-death experiences are not always crackpots but are often known and respected people from all walks of life.

2. Ghosts and Spirits.

All over the world and in every society, people have reported sensing ghostly contacts.  Can this widespread phenomena be casually dismissed?  The sheer weight of the testimony lends a certain degree of credibility to the idea that ghosts or spirits, at least at times, occupy our zone of reality.  Chances are you or someone you know and trust has had such an encounter.  As so many people have, even doubters have to wonder.

1. Life and its Diversity on Earth.

Despite strenuous efforts, we have not yet proven that life exists or has ever existed on any other planet or heavenly body.  Why Earth?  Can our planet be so unique in a universe of trillions of solar systems?  Many do not accept the theory of evolution as sufficient enough to explain the incredible diversity of life on Earth.  The theories of how the spark of life started on Earth are far from proven and remain only theories.  Mighty efforts have been made to “create” life in the laboratory, but they have been without success.  Creating amino acids is as far as science has gotten.  Was the spark of life that started it all Divine intervention?  Alien origin?  Perhaps we will never know, but for now it can to be considered “super” natural until we get a better explanation.  Additionally, some folks, even educated ones, are skeptical about the possibility that life could have reached such incredible diversity in the timeframe given by scientists.

Supernatural Influences on WIF


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Forever Mastadon ~ Episode 64

…Constance meets Fanny Renwick…

—–‘Where is that waiter with my bill?’ Constance Caraway wonders, eating out alone having vowed that she would never do so, ‘only losers eat by themselves’. Having broken off yet another relationship the week before, the 24 year old coed she finds herself alone again. She has taken her time at university, not able to focus in on any specific major, although she always fancied herself a writer, ‘You are a bore, Connie, face it. You need some excitement in your life. Why write about something, when you can experience it first hand’.


“Who are you talking to?” asks the waitress, who had been working that lounge side of Yancy’s Place, replacing Constance’s former male server.

She puts away her journal, looks around as if losing track of someone, “I was—well— looking for the waiter, you know I am done eating and I’d like to leave.”

The young girl notices the legal pad, “Are you a writer? I love to read, reading Agatha Christie on my breaks.”

Murder at the Vicarage?” Constance does fancy herself the heroine type, especially a younger version of Christie’s Miss Jane Marple. “ I haven’t written much of anything lately.” Constance is secure in that statement, but upon closer examination, she takes notice of the perky redhead handing her the bill she had been looking for. Upon further inspection, this young woman seems overqualified for waitressing “I do not recall seeing you in here before.”


Fanny Renwick at your service; would you like dessert, we have lemon meringue pie, rice pudding and the chef’s famous triple fudge mousse?” Fanny does well do recite the desert menu. “I usually work the bar.”

“I’ll have the mousse, thank you,” she had not planned on topping off her meal with a treat, but what the hell. She will temporarily ignore those 5 extra pounds as swimsuit season at Panama City Beach is around the bend. For the present, she will risk the extra calories in the interest of prying into this Fanny-person’s life status.



My Project 3-001

Episode 64

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Contents CC-FM (2)

Kumari Kandam, Hy-Brasil , Lyonesse and Mu – WIF Lost Lands

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10 Mysterious Lost Lands

Has the geography of the world changed enough that entire lands and continents have disappeared? Throughout history, a lot of people have thought so. The drowned continent of Atlantis is the most famous of these mysterious lands, but there are dozens of others.

Some of these lands may have disappeared due to erosion, ice melt and tectonic plate shifts. Others could simply be the result of poor navigation by confused sailors. But the stories of lost lands linger on, appearing and reappearing at the edges of history and science. One things’s for sure: there are a lot of mysterious lands supposedly out there.

10. Mayda


Also known as Maida or the Isle of Mam, Mayda is a phantom island in theAtlantic Ocean located southwest of Ireland. Sailors in the Age of Exploration considered Mayda very unsafe — a 1397 map showed it surrounded by dragons and sea monsters, and it included a warning in Latin about the dangers waiting for anyone who sailed too close. The mysterious island first showed up on maps in the Middle Ages and continued to appear throughout the centuries, always as a crescent-shaped island. Its final appearance was on a 1906 map published by Rand McNally, a surprisingly recent appearance considering there’s nothing to be found to the southwest of Ireland.

9. Cantref Gwaelod


According to legend, this beautiful Welsh kingdom was found in what is nowCardigan Bay. Because it was below sea level, a sluiced dike protected it from the water. The kingdom stayed safe until a visiting king seduced the maiden responsible for closing the gates at night. They were left open, and the kingdom was flooded by the rising seas.

In February 2014, storms in Cardigan Bay stripped away layers of sand to reveal a forest of petrified stumps, as well as ancient timber walkways. Further out to sea, a pile of stones and boulders resembling a ruined building became visible. But whether these are the remains of Cantref Gwaelod or simply prehistoric artifacts that gave rise to the legend may never be known.

8. Lyonesse


Lyonesse is a lost island off the coast of Cornwall in England. It’s famous both as the home of Sir Tristan in Arthurian legends and for its mysterious disappearance. According to folk stories, the land was drowned in a single night as punishment for the sins of its inhabitants. Only one man escaped, racing ahead of the flood on a white horse.

Modern archeologists speculate that the legend refers to several of the Isles of Scilly. These were above sea level at the time of the Roman conquest of Britain but were later covered by water due to changing currents and ice melt. Diving expeditions have found the remains of many settlements on the submerged islands. In spite of various scientific explanations, the legend remains. Locals will tell visitors to listen for the bells of drowned Lyonesse, which can be hearing ringing under the water on stormy nights.

7. Mu


Much larger than a single island, Mu was an entire drowned continent in the middle of the Pacific Ocean. Mu was supposedly inhabited by members of an ancient civilization that dispersed to places in Eurasia, Northern Africa and the Americas. This explains, believers claim, how ancient cultures like the Mayans, Japanese, and Egyptians became so advanced.

The possibility of an entire continent disappearing without leaving a trace has been generally debunked by scientists. However, underwater mysteries keep the story alive. One of the most controversial is the Yonaguni monument. Beneath the Yaeyama Islands of Japan, divers have found ruins of what appears to be an temple on the ocean floor. Skeptics claim these giant, step-like structures are natural formations. Others say that they are physical evidence of sunken continent that could be Mu. Whatever the truth of this underwater riddle, the site is a popular destination for divers and believers alike.

6. Kumari Kandam


The legend of Kumari Kandam comes from the Tamil people of the Indian subcontinent. According to written and oral tradition, Kumari Kandam was the birthplace of the Tamil nation. Kumari Kandam was believed to stretch across the Indian Ocean, connecting Madagascar, India, Sri Lanka and Australia. It was a thriving, peaceful civilization where the Tamil poets created their greatest works. According to legend, Kumari Kandam was lost to kadatkol — the ancient Tamil word for “the sea devours the land.”

The Silappathikaram, one of the most famous Tamil literary works, describes hills and kingdoms that were “submerged by the raging seas.” Whether these passages refer to an entire continent lost beneath the waves of the Indian Ocean or to islands covered by rising sea levels is unknown. However, many Tamil scholars agree that their ancestors were displaced by some cataclysmic event.

5. Mauritia


It turns out that a drowned continent linking India and Madagascar isn’t impossible. In 2013, scientists found evidence of one off the coast of Mauritius. Called Mauritia, the microcontinent is thought to have once been part of the land mass that joined India, Madagascar, Australia and Antarctica. It now lies below sea level, buried under masses of volcanic crust.

Of course, the lost continent of Mauritia differs from lands like Atlantis and Kumari Kandam in one crucial respect: scientists believe it drowned due to plate tectonics and the breakup of supercontinents about 85 million years ago. But where one drowned continent exists, there could always be another…

4. Hy-Brasil


Hy-Brasil was a small island off the coast of Ireland that appeared on maps during the Age of Exploration. Sound familiar? It was sometimes confused with the island of Mayda, but in most instances it has its own distinctive circularshape.

For centuries, many mariners returned to their homes with tales of landing on Hy-Brasil. These visitors described a mysterious island appearing out of the mist, and peaceful island inhabitants who gave them gifts of silver and gold. After the nineteenth century Hy-Brasil no longer appeared on official maps, since its location couldn’t be verified. Anthropologists suspect that Hy-Brasil came from the Irish myth of Bresal, a mysterious island of fairies and kings that appeared once every seven years.

But underwater islands have been discovered off the coast of Ireland, especially in the shoal area known as Porcupine Bank. Although scientists say these islands were covered before humans settled there, believers claim they’re proof that ancient mariners may have stumbled upon a mysterious island after all.

3. Thule


Thule was first identified by the writer Pytheas in the fourth century BC, who described it as an icy, misty land somewhere north of Europe. Because the original account of his journey was lost the exact location he traveled through is unknown, leaving the identity of Thule a lingering mystery.

References to Thule appear everywhere from the writings of Virgil to the explorations of Columbus, who claimed to have reached Thule on his way to America. Sometimes Thule is a mysterious land all its own, and other times it’s identified with real places. The fifth century AD poet Claudian described it as “ice-bound beneath the pole-star,” leading some historians to suspect that Pytheas traveled to Scandinavia or Iceland. Others speculate that he was referring to Britain or Scotland. Whatever the truth of its location, Thule is unique among the lost lands in that many historians believe it hasn’t been lost at all, but perhaps merely mislaid.

2. Iram


Iram, also known as Iram of the Pillars or Ubar, is another unique lost land. It wasn’t drowned by water, but by sand. It’s first referenced in chapter 89 of theQuran as “Iram who had lofty pillars.” According to Islamic texts, it was a rich kingdom built at the command of King Shaddad, who wanted it to be the most magnificent land on earth. But Shaddad’s vanity drew the wrath of Allah, who sent a sandstorm to cover Iram as punishment.

For centuries, scholars believed Iram was only a legend. But in 1992, an archeological expedition to Oman discovered the ruins of a giant city buried beneath thousands of tons of desert sand. The team that unearthed it discovered artifacts dating back as far as 2000 BC, and a pattern of destruction that seemed to match the cataclysmic account of the “Atlantis of the Sands.”

1. Shambhala


Shambhala first appeared in the Hindu text Mahabharata, then later in theBuddhist Kalachakra texts. In both traditions, the hidden kingdom is a beautiful, peaceful valley whose wise inhabitants lived for thousands of years, never growing sick or old.

Shambala was introduced to the Western world by Lost Horizon, James Hilton’s 1933 novel about Shangri-La, a fictional paradise based on the myth of Shambala. While spiritualists believed it was a real location, most scientists and historians doubted that it was anything more than a myth. However, in 2007 a team of archaeologists exploring the ancient kingdom of Mustang in Nepal found a series of caves and valleys that contained a treasure trove of ancient religious texts and art. These artifacts were centuries old, dating from before the Tibetan conversion to Buddhism. The team speculated that these hidden sanctuaries could have been the original spiritual paradise of Shambala.

Kumari Kandam, Hy-Brasil , Lyonesse and Mu

- WIF Lost Lands


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Forever Mastadon ~ Episode 59

…“FM has been around since the Dark Ages, we are talking some 1400 odd years?” Martin does the historical math…

“Prior to modern communication, the FOREVER MASTADON outfit did not have the World Agnostica Unlimited corporate tag; what’s in a name when you can operate covertly. That is more than one reason the CIA was created three years ago; the OSS needed a post-war overhaul and I jumped at the chance,” when you’re good at something. “And though I worked for the FBI for the last 10 years they are too closely tied to Constitutional law to be effective. Some ventures require extra-legal latitude. This situation is one such undertaking,” insists the man whose CIA codename is “The Rogue”.

“Were you aware that Willard Libby was a target for FM?” Constance narrows down the time-line. “And did you know that Libby had regular conversations with the FBI?”

“I did and I did, but I could not jeopardize my cover, plus I had no idea where that whole thing was headed. Libby seemed like a pretty small fish to me, not knowing of his involvement with the Manhattan Project or this whole carbon dating deal. As far as this operative is concerned, this is my only priority and no option is off the table.”

“So you just let it happen?” Martin experiences the harsh reality of the ‘greater good’ or ‘the needs of the many outweigh the needs of the few’. “Well for your information, we just returned from finding Willard Libby—and he is but a shell of his former self.”

Daniels is taken aback, “You mean you didn’t bring him back?”

“Disappointed are we?” Constance is not impressed with what she is hearing thus far. “We need to know where your loyalties lay, a little matter called trust.”

“I may be paid by both sides, but my employer of origin is in Washington D.C. and I can be taken out of action at any time, without discussion by either side.” His job security is tenuous at best. “It is everyone’s interest to include me in your plans. I bring a certain skill set to the game.”

“We could use the help,” Constance admits, “but Libby is off limits to the Feds, the people above you. If there is a chance that he can recover, we—Fanny, Martin and I, need to look out after HIS best interest.”

“Understood and I agree. What Washington knows about Libby comes through my input, so I will follow your lead,” Agent Daniels knows that he is not operating from a position of power, often left to speculate on what’s what. “Something must be up because they have me flying back to Rome.”

The role of a double agent is precariously fluid, especially as it applies to his placement inside a group called FOREVER MASTADON.


My Project 3-001

Episode 59

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