CONSTANCE CARAWAY P.I. ~ Episode 216

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Forever Mastadon ~ Episode 216

…I forgot what I was going to say….

Our story resumes-001

Attorney Moore is ankle deep in horse apples, knee deep in hay and up to his neck in angst.

“Not to worry Worth old boy, Rex has everything under control. I remember when we were kids and I was out visiting his pop’s farm… ”  ____ PLENTY OF TIME FOR WORTH’S MIND TO WANDER____IS THE MILKMAN COMING TODAY?____ I DO LIKE THAT NEW  CARTOON “DENNIS THE MENACE”____HARRY TRUMAN IS DOING A BANG-UP JOB____“... But we went over to the General Store and bought him a carton of Camels and a Baby Ruth and he was happy.”

I forgot what I was going to say.” Eddie is a sidebar waiting to happen. “Didn’t we have something else to tell him Fanny?”

“That Baby Ruth is your favorite candy?” Funny Fanny.

“I favor the maple variety Bun Bar…” Now Worth remembers… “Oh yes, you’ll need a police escort to get into Comiskey Park. It’s over 4 miles on busy streets.”

“Got it covered Worth, my third Cousin Elston from my mother’s side works all the ballgames, he still sneaks me in after the first inning starts. I haven’t been to a game this year, I don’t like cold baseball, but last September I saw them sweep the Bronx Bombers all the way back east.”

“How many cousins do you have Eddie?” Fanny steps in to change the subject.

“Let’s just say the Dombroskis and Baxters got busy after V-J Day.”

Even with a 12 word sentence, Eddie D. can deliver excess information.

***For those keeping score, Eddie has injected 8 cousins to support his many and varied stories. Here in a list in review:

Eddie's Cousins-001

  1. Jimmy from Berwyn with 3 mentions>
  2. Wilfred who invented the rubber band ball board>
  3. Harold owner of White Castle stock>
  4. Johnnie’s son had polio>
  5. Georgie has a car repair shop on Western Ave.>
  6. Hilbert the farmer from Sandwich>
  7. Elston works White Sox games at Comiskey Park>
  8. Rex is one of the drivers & co-owner of C-14>
Now that’s a list!

 

CONSTANCE CARAWAY P.I.

 

Episode 216


 

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CONSTANCE CARAWAY P.I. ~ Episode 212

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Forever Mastadon ~ Episode 212

…Attorney Worth has located an abandoned stable on north Dearborn, the actual coach house for a Louis Sullivan designed home…

Coachhouse

North Dearborn

Eddie's Cousins-001

Also not very common in the middle of the Twentieth Century is specialized upscale livery by horse drawn carriage. Partially inspired by wife Edie’s insistence that he gives up his Checker Cab days, coupled with the inheritance left behind by his wife’s rich aunt from Jersey, Eddie Dombroski is teaming up with his cousin Rex from Western Springs on the concept of carriage rides in what is considered to be the downtown Chicago’s Loop.

There is a gaping hole in romantic conveyance in the city, in fact there are none at all. The only problem is, that despite his extensive knowledge of the byways and side streets, he has zero experience with Cleveland Bays, those 16-hand mahogany colored beauties that will tow the high-wheeled four person enclosed cabs.

Eddie is coachman to Rex’s footman, though one cannot exist without the other. Edie has broken away from her domestic chains to become the hawker for the fledgling undertaking and the three of them work together.

And seeing as Fanny has parked he fanny at that shyster Moore’s South Loop Hotel, they will be the perfect guinea pigs for this groundbreaking rebirth of a long lost mode of transportation. But he may be switching from the South Side for the North Side. Attorney Worth has located an abandoned stable on north Dearborn, the actual coach house for a Louis Sullivan designed home. After clearing away the legal hindrance to keeping live farm animals, the Floridian decides he likes the home itself and buys it.

“What a wonderful place to start a family,” directing his comment to “we know who”, a “who” that is creeping up on the upper reaches of motherhood – tick-tock, tick-tock.

That puts Fanny to thinking. If he is thinking about children, he must have sexual intimacy on his mind. If he has sex on his mind then he knows that marriage must come first; which is the very same hurdle that Ace and Constance have facing them.

“Let’s get Rex and his horses into the stable first. The 28th is coming up fast and Constance wants us to meet up with Agent Daniels as soon as possible.”

“After the stadium crusade is over, you’ll have to help me furnish the place.”

“I used to have simple tastes!”

To be foretold is to be forewarned. (or something like that)

 


CONSTANCE CARAWAY P.I.

Episode 212


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Changing the World – From Out of History’s Shadows

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HOF-001

People Who Changed the World

…and you didn’t know it.

Fame is a curious thing. Two people will devote their lives to working toward the same world changing goal, with one gaining global recognition while the other slides into obscurity. So what makes one person famous while the other remains an unknown?

Good PR is often a part of it, of course. Other times people suffer from bad timing, and some are just overlooked by historians and the media for whatever reason, rendering their accomplishments and deeds largely ignored by the general public. So who are these historical “coulda-beens”? Well, it’s funny you should ask…

10. Joshua Lawrence Chamberlain

joshuachamberlain

When you think “Civil War” you think of names like Robert E. Lee and Stonewall Jackson, but how many have ever heard the name Joshua Chamberlain? Aside from the most ardent civil war buffs, it’s a fair bet that most haven’t heard of the chivalrous professor from a tiny college in Maine who may have been more responsible for saving the Union cause at Gettysburg than any other man. Though lacking any formal military training, Chamberlain was eager to serve and enlisted in 1862.

Made a Colonel and put in command of the 20th Maine Regiment, he found himself anchoring the southern flank of the Union forces arrayed at Gettysburg and was tasked with fending off repeated assaults from General Oates’ 15th Alabama regiment as it tried to seize Little Round Top, a strategic hill overlooking the Union positions to the north. Had it fallen to the rebels, it would have seriously compromised General Meade’s position on Cemetery Ridge and probably forced him to withdraw to less defendable ground.

Through his moxy and unconventional tactics – including ordering a bayonet charge that managed to send the rebels to flight, a tactic which earned him the Congressional Medal of Honor – it could be argued Chamberlain did more to save the day than any other officer, yet history has largely forgotten him. He eventually became a General and was even present when Lee surrendered at Appomattox courthouse two years later.

9. Elisha Gray

elishagray

Alexander Graham Bell is credited with the invention of the telephone, but you probably didn’t realize it all came down to his attorney’s punctuality. Had he arrived at the U.S. Patent Office just two hours later, we would be talking aboutElisha Gray being the man behind the squawk box, and Bell would have been just another of a long line of men who missed their chance at fame and fortune.

Both men were working on the telephone at the same time, but Bell was the one with the patent and Gray was the one with the attorney who shouldn’t have stopped for lunch on his way to the patent office. Of course had Gray won the race to the patent office, Bell might well have still achieved a degree of fame. Unlike most inventors, he didn’t concentrate on a single invention but proved to have a wide range of interests that would lead him to develop groundbreaking inventions in the areas of optical telecommunications, hydrofoils, and even aeronautics.

8. Kia Silverbrook

kiasilverbrook

People often consider Thomas Edison the most prolific inventor in history, but many would be surprised to know that he is far surpassed for that honor by a man who is still inventing today. Kia Silverbrook is an Australian inventor who started his first company at the age of 19 in 1977, and since then has been inventing all sorts of useful devices, many of which you probably use today without even knowing it. He currently has over 4,600 patents to his name, and almost 10,000 total patents or patent applications registered in the international patent document database.

So what has he designed? Silverbrook has made numerous inventions in the fields of digital music synthesis, digital video, digital printing, computer graphics, liquid crystal displays, robotics, 3D printing, DNA analysis, solar photovoltaics, image processing, microelectromechanical systems, cryptography, nanotechnology, microfluidics, semiconductor fabrication, and integrated circuit architecture to name just a few. It’s okay if you need to take a moment to catch your breath after reading that list, we certainly had to after writing it.

Sure, none of his inventions have been as flashy as Edison’s, but all of them have been essential in creating the high tech revolution we all depend on today, making him perhaps the most obscure influential person in the world.

7. Gustav Whitehead

gustavwhitehead

The Wright Brothers are credited as being the first to flight, but it turns out that may not be entirely accurate. There was another man working on achieving flight at the same time who has been largely forgotten by aviation historians. In 1901 a little known German immigrant by the name of Gustav Whitehead not only demonstrated himself to be a competent glider pilot, but had built a number of small but powerful combustion engines that he used to power an elegant little flying machine he called, simply, Number 21.

Sleek and birdlike, the frail little machine may have actually achieved several minutes of sustained flight on the morning of August 14, 1901 with Whitehead at the controls, according to a handful of witnesses. Unfortunately, no photograph exists of the flight and there was only a single account of the flight recorded in a local Connecticut newspaper. Additionally, being an immigrant who spoke little English and had been known to exaggerate his accomplishments on occasion made it easy to discount his claims, and once the Wright Brothers achieved their success, Whitehead quickly found himself lost in the shuffle.

6. Anton Drexler

drexler

Most people assume that Adolf Hitler created the Nazi party back in the 1920s, but that wasn’t the case. The German Workers’ Party (the precursor the National Socialist Party) was actually the creation of Anton Drexler, who founded the party in 1919 during the aftermath of World War I. Hitler, it turns out, was actually an early convert to Drexler’s anti-Semitic, anti-Communist organization. In any case, Hitler’s power of persuasion and oratorical skills so impressed Drexler that he recruited him to be his propaganda chief, a move he would come to regret when within two years his protégé would rise so quickly through the party hierarchy that in July of 1921, Hitler actually displaced Drexler as head of the party and pushed Drexler into the background.

Drexler stayed on as honorary president until 1923, when he left the party for other pursuits. He rejoined the Nazis in 1933 after Hitler came to power, but remained little more than a propaganda tool until his death from natural causes in 1942. The sad thing is that had Drexler remained in charge, it’s unlikely his party would have achieved anything like the success it did under Hitler, and World War II might never have happened. The moral of the story here is that when one creates a monster, they must beware lest that monster turn on them.

5. John Alcock and Arthur Brown

alcockbrown

While Charles Lindbergh became the 1920s equivalent of a rock star for his Transatlantic flight in 1927, he was far from the first to make a non-stop crossing of the Atlantic by air. In fact, the feat had actually been accomplished eight years earlier by two British aviators, John Alcock and Arthur Brown, in a modified Vickers Vimy bomber. The duo flew the rickety, two-engined plane from St. John’s, Newfoundland to Connemara, Ireland in June of 1919.

The flight, which covered just under 1,900 miles, took 16 hours and ended in a crash landing in a bog, but it demonstrated that Transatlantic flight was possible. The two men received some recognition for the flight afterwards but it was nothing compared to the much more public flight Lindbergh pulled off in 1927. The reason for this is two-fold: first, Alcock and Brown were not performing their feat as part of a contest, but as more of a test flight for the Vickers Aircraft company. And second, they didn’t perform it solo. Additionally, Lindbergh flew from New York to Paris – a much longer and more demanding route – and there was also the added thrill that others had died in the attempt to accomplish the task.

4. Lothar Von Richtofen

lothar

The Red Baron, Manfred Von Richtofen, remains the most famous flying ace of World War I. What few people remember, however, is that he had a brother named Lothar who was also a fighter pilot and had a record nearly as impressive. Lothar shot down 40 aircraft, and both took command of the same squadron, making their careers almost a partnership. For some reason, however, Lothar never got the recognition his older brother received despite the fact that he was one of the most efficient and prolific fighter pilots of the war.

Perhaps one reason is that he survived the war, and fighter pilots who die in battle strike a far more romantic image than those who live through the carnage. He also had a pedestrian career after the war, flying passengers and mail between Berlin and Hamburg, which was hardly the sort of death-defying, pulse-pounding profession you’d expect from flying ace. Lothar didn’t outlive his brother by much, perishing in 1922 when the engine on his plane failed. He doesn’t even have a gravesite anymore, as the cemetery he was buried in was leveled after the territory was transferred to Poland after the war.

3. Amy Johnson

amyjohnson

Amelia Earhart was the undisputed darling of the press during the 1930s for her long-distance flying records, but she was nearly eclipsed by another female pilot named Amy Johnson. Earhart’s British contemporary and rival set a number of long-distance flying records as well, including becoming the first woman to fly solo from England to Australia – a journey of over 11,000 miles – in 1930. She was setting records before Earhart really got started, and might well have beaten her across the Atlantic and the Pacific, if not for the fact that Earhart received far more financial backing and public support thanks to her marriage to publishing tycoon George Putnam.

When Earhart disappeared over the Pacific in 1937, female aviators largely fell out of the public eye, and Johnson ended up in relative obscurity. In a footnote as tragic as Earhart’s, she also lost her life while flying, this time as ferry pilot for the RAF in World War II. Lost in the fog while ferrying a plane to its base, her aircraft ran out of fuel, forcing her to parachute. Landing in the frigid Thames River, she apparently succumbed to hypothermia and was presumably washed out to sea. Like Earhart, her body was never recovered.

2. Alfred Russel Wallace

alfredwallace

While Charles Darwin is credited with being the man behind the Theory of Evolution, it was actually another British naturalist whose theory of natural selection would inspire Darwin’s ground-breaking Origins of the Species. Alfred Wallace was an anthropologist and explorer, as well as a contemporary of Darwin’s, who had written numerous papers on the subject of natural selection, demonstrating that the two men had come up with essentially the same idea independently of each other.

The reason Darwin is so much better known is because he had the good sense to write an entire book about the subject, while Wallace was content to simply publish his ideas as a series of articles in scientific journals. Darwin used a much larger audience and platform to popularize his controversial ideas, while Wallace seemed to have been more interested in continuing his travels and studies on biogeography. These days Darwin gets most of the credit, all because he understood the power of the written word better than Wallace.

1. Philo Farnsworth

farnsworth

Most people can tell you who invented the telephone or the light bulb or the steam engine, but how many people can name the inventor of television? It seems remarkable that one of the paramount features in most people’s lives has such a murky history, but that’s the case with what might be described as one of the most influential and impactful inventions of all-time. Television was really the brain child of a boy genius named Philo Farnsworth, who first demonstrated a crude but working example of what was called an “image dissector”in 1927 at the ripe old age of 21.

That first image was just a straight line, but by 1929 he had improved his basic design enough that he was able to transmit a very blurry image of his wife onto a three inch surface. The reason you’ve probably never heard of him is because he passed on an offer by Westinghouse to buy out his patents and work for them, preferring instead to create his own company. Unable to compete with his much larger rival, he remained a prodigious yet obscure inventor up to the time of his death in 1971.

Changing the World

– From Out of History’s Shadows

CONSTANCE CARAWAY P.I. ~ Episode 209

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Forever Mastadon ~ Episode 209

…Billy Graham and Samuel Goldwyn are talking about life and the age-old story of Abraham and his son Isaac…

Billy Graham and Samuel Goldwyn are talking about life, its meaning and other matters on the bus trip back to Chicago. Sam is of the Jewish persuasion, albeit the non-practicing flavor, but like many of the crusade attendees, he has repeatedly heard the messages and cannot help having serious questions about the potential role of faith in his life. But it’s not only Judaism that haunts him. He can still hear his Grandfather speak of their centuries struggle against the Muslim world, right up to 1947 and when Israel was granted the promised homeland.

Much of the root confusion arises from the birthright of Abraham’s two sons, by different mothers; Abraham being the patriarch of the line of David.

“Why do Muslims claim that it was Hagar’s son, Ishmael, whom God spared from being sacrificed?” Young Goldwyn knows just enough scripture to be dangerous.

“… because it allows them to claim our God as their own. You see, sometime after Christ died on the cross, they changed the story in their holy book, the Koran, to fit their needs. But these same errant editors insist that their prophet Mohammed is like a god, which is pure hogwash. Mohammed has been allowed to write his own sacred manuscript to be passed off as divine. It is fiction by the strictest measure.

“In the real historical account, as transcribed by the apostles, our great God provided a 100 year old man with a son, by his wife of 90, a miracle that triumphed over the despair of barrenness. God ordered, ‘And you will call him Isaac’. So when He instructed Abraham to sacrifice his precious son on an altar, he was obedient. That obedience was proof of the man’s faithfulness and Isaac was spared; not Ishmael who has Egyptian blood and born of a concubine.”

Graham knows this story well.

“And I used to think that the Bible was just another book.”

Goldwyn sees the light.


CONSTANCE CARAWAY P.I.

Episode 209


 

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CONSTANCE CARAWAY P.I. ~ Episode 201

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Forever Mastadon ~ Episode 201

…”I can open it,” Constance reaches into her purse, acquires the proper tool-of-her-trade and it gives way easily…

 

From their home base in the Town of Eagle, Constance and Ace Bannion head off to meet their tour guide from Milwaukee, a lower level Armour executive that has access to Danforth through his ongoing financial dealings with Patrick Anderson Valentine II. The younger Valentine has no tangible need for the once vibrant P.D. Armour Estate. The upkeep is killing him.

 

The previously immaculately kept grounds are now overgrown and undistinguished. The 75+ room mansion has been stripped of its appointments by Armour and Valentine relatives who did not share in the ten million dollar will/estate of either family bequeathing.

But as cavernously empty the building is, there seems to be something or someone lingering about. No, it is not that bitter coldness that Pentateuch has need of, or his lingering smell of burning hair & flesh, but there is definitely some sort of “presence”.

“Has anyone ever told you, or have you heard, that this place is haunted,” her investigative skills kicking in, Constance steps lightly through room after room, until on the third floor. She nears a particular room. That is locked, “Here, in here!”

“I have no idea what is in there, but the door is locked,” the guide explains. “I believe this was Mrs. Valentine’s sewing room.”

“It’s only a skeleton (key), I can open it,” she reaches into her purse, acquires the proper tool-of-her-trade and it gives way easily. The unused and un-oiled door opens slowly, revealing a room that has not been touched in decades. Cobwebs drape from wall to ceiling and ceiling to furnishings. There is a cradle in the corner, which appears to be rocking back and forth, empty and dusty.

Dark

 

The rooms natural light is short and outside noises are squelched by heavy drapery, yet there is single shaft of light, seemingly without origin, streaming onto a large book….

question mark

“What’s in the book?”


CONSTANCE CARAWAY P.I.

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Episode 201


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Independence Day – Let Freedom Ring

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Independence Day

– Let Freedom Ring

 

The Declaration of Independence is the usual name of a statement adopted by the Continental Congress on July 4, 1776, which announced that the thirteen American colonies,then at war with Great Britain, regarded themselves as thirteen newly independent sovereign states, and no longer a part of the British Empire. Instead they formed a new nation—the United States of America. John Adams was a leader in pushing for independence, which was unanimously approved on July 2. Acommittee of five had already drafted the formal declaration, to be ready when Congress voted on independence. The term “Declaration of Independence” is not used in the document itself.

Adams persuaded the committee to select Thomas Jefferson to compose the original draft of the document, which Congress would edit to produce the final version. The Declaration was ultimately a formal explanation of why Congress had voted on July 2 to declare independence from Great Britain, more than a year after the outbreak of the American Revolutionary War. The national birthday, Independence Day, is celebrated on July 4, although Adams wanted July 2.

After ratifying the text on July 4, Congress issued the Declaration of Independence in several forms. It was initially published as the printedDunlap broadside that was widely distributed and read to the public. The source copy used for this printing has been lost, and may have been a copy in Thomas Jefferson’s hand. Jefferson’s original draft, complete with changes made by John Adams and Benjamin Franklin, and Jefferson’s notes of changes made by Congress, are preserved at the Library of Congress. The best known version of the Declaration, a signed copy that is popularly regarded as the official document, is displayed at the National Archives in Washington, D.C. This engrossed copy was ordered by Congress on July 19, and signed primarily on August 2.

The sources and interpretation of the Declaration have been the subject of much scholarly inquiry. The Declaration justified the independence of the United States by listing colonial grievances against King George III, and by asserting certain natural and legal rights, including a right of revolution. Having served its original purpose in announcing independence, references to the text of the Declaration were few for the next four score years. Abraham Lincoln made it the centerpiece of his rhetoric (as in the Gettysburg Address of 1863), and his policies. Since then, it has become a well-known statement on human rights, particularly its second sentence:

We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.

This has been called “one of the best-known sentences in the English language”, containing “the most potent and consequential words in American history”. The passage came to represent a moral standard to which the United States should strive. This view was notably promoted by Abraham Lincoln, who considered the Declaration to be the foundation of his political philosophy, and argued that the Declaration is a statement of principles through which theUnited States Constitution should be interpreted.

It provided inspiration to numerous national declarations of independence throughout the world. Historian David Armitage, after examining the influence of the American “Declaration” on over 100 other declarations of independence, says:

The American Revolution was the first outbreak of the contagion of sovereignty that has swept the world in the centuries since 1776. Its influence spread first to the Low Countries and then to the Caribbean, Spanish America, the Balkans, West Africa, and Central Europe in the decades up to 1848…. Declarations of independence were among the primary symptoms of this contagion of sovereignty.

Thirteen Colonies
United States
Coat of arms or logo
Type
Type
History
Established May 10, 1775
Disbanded March 1, 1781
Preceded by First Continental Congress
Succeeded by 1st Confederation Congress
Seats Variable; ~60
Meeting place
1775–1777: Pennsylvania State House,Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
1775–1781: Variable
Footnotes
Though there were about 50 members of the Congress at a given time, it was the states that had votes, so there were effectively only 13 seats.

 

Independence Day

– Let Freedom Ring

Independence Day – Let Freedom Ring

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Independence Day

– Let Freedom Ring

 

The Declaration of Independence is the usual name of a statement adopted by the Continental Congress on July 4, 1776, which announced that the thirteen American colonies,then at war with Great Britain, regarded themselves as thirteen newly independent sovereign states, and no longer a part of the British Empire. Instead they formed a new nation—the United States of America. John Adams was a leader in pushing for independence, which was unanimously approved on July 2. Acommittee of five had already drafted the formal declaration, to be ready when Congress voted on independence. The term “Declaration of Independence” is not used in the document itself.

Adams persuaded the committee to select Thomas Jefferson to compose the original draft of the document, which Congress would edit to produce the final version. The Declaration was ultimately a formal explanation of why Congress had voted on July 2 to declare independence from Great Britain, more than a year after the outbreak of the American Revolutionary War. The national birthday, Independence Day, is celebrated on July 4, although Adams wanted July 2.

After ratifying the text on July 4, Congress issued the Declaration of Independence in several forms. It was initially published as the printedDunlap broadside that was widely distributed and read to the public. The source copy used for this printing has been lost, and may have been a copy in Thomas Jefferson’s hand. Jefferson’s original draft, complete with changes made by John Adams and Benjamin Franklin, and Jefferson’s notes of changes made by Congress, are preserved at the Library of Congress. The best known version of the Declaration, a signed copy that is popularly regarded as the official document, is displayed at the National Archives in Washington, D.C. This engrossed copy was ordered by Congress on July 19, and signed primarily on August 2.

The sources and interpretation of the Declaration have been the subject of much scholarly inquiry. The Declaration justified the independence of the United States by listing colonial grievances against King George III, and by asserting certain natural and legal rights, including a right of revolution. Having served its original purpose in announcing independence, references to the text of the Declaration were few for the next four score years. Abraham Lincoln made it the centerpiece of his rhetoric (as in the Gettysburg Address of 1863), and his policies. Since then, it has become a well-known statement on human rights, particularly its second sentence:

We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.

This has been called “one of the best-known sentences in the English language”, containing “the most potent and consequential words in American history”. The passage came to represent a moral standard to which the United States should strive. This view was notably promoted by Abraham Lincoln, who considered the Declaration to be the foundation of his political philosophy, and argued that the Declaration is a statement of principles through which theUnited States Constitution should be interpreted.

It provided inspiration to numerous national declarations of independence throughout the world. Historian David Armitage, after examining the influence of the American “Declaration” on over 100 other declarations of independence, says:

The American Revolution was the first outbreak of the contagion of sovereignty that has swept the world in the centuries since 1776. Its influence spread first to the Low Countries and then to the Caribbean, Spanish America, the Balkans, West Africa, and Central Europe in the decades up to 1848…. Declarations of independence were among the primary symptoms of this contagion of sovereignty.

Thirteen Colonies
United States
Coat of arms or logo
Type
Type
History
Established May 10, 1775
Disbanded March 1, 1781
Preceded by First Continental Congress
Succeeded by 1st Confederation Congress
Seats Variable; ~60
Meeting place
1775–1777: Pennsylvania State House,Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
1775–1781: Variable
Footnotes
Though there were about 50 members of the Congress at a given time, it was the states that had votes, so there were effectively only 13 seats.

 

Independence Day

– Let Freedom Ring