Constance Caraway P.I. Coming Tomorrow

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What’s Next on WIF

… We are going to take a break from the Space Family McKinney {for a while} and revisit a book I posted in 2014…

CONSTANCE CARAWAY ~FOREVER MASTADON~

A private eye and her colleagues are blinded by science…and a greater power

Historical Fiction from Gwendolyn Hoff

Creation vs. Evolution, Heaven & hell collide on Earth.

CONSTANCE CARAWAY ~FOREVER MASTADON~ 75,000 words that chronicle an early case taken on by CONSTANCE CARAWAY INVESTIGATION, a Tallahassee Florida based private detective agency, consisting of the title character and her partner Fanny Renwick.

Constance and Fanny are drawn [paid] to Chicago to investigate the disappearance of Willard Libby, a University of Chicago biochemist who has been working on a breakthrough project. They are hired by an associate of Libby, who does not trust his conventional local options.

Set in 1951 Chicago, Forever Mastadon (Mastodon is intentionally misspelled) is an organization that is bent on permanently quieting Libby, as it applies to radiocarbon dating. Bottom line: the devil himself is behind a conspiracy that includes textbook publishers, the United States Justice Department, a cult leader and a handful or two of 2-bit hoodlums.

As a result of good detective work and some dumb luck, the scientist is located…catatonic–at a mental hospital. But that is just the beginning; his mind will be fully restored, he is hidden away and his death wrongly reported,  all the while the antagonists behind his abduction are about to be found out.

It is not long before a supporting cast comes together to combat the unknown forces behind the “Great Deception”, the lie being that carbon dating has identified life on Earth as 100 of millions of years old. A Chicago taxi driver, a pilot friend of Constance, a Tallahassee lawyer and a CIA rogue, unite to see that Willard Libby’s truths see the spotlight of day.

While God has his angels, the Libbyites (13 people who are his advocates) get help from a young Southern preacher named Billy Graham, who incorporates the science supporting Creationism into his Crusades and finally a Revival Meeting for the ages, a finale that will either make you sit up in your chair or stand up and cheer.

I have branded my own style of Historical Fiction, which I first brought to the world with my book, THE LIFE AND TIMES OF A BLACK SOUTHERN DOCTOR (1896-1959),(ISBN13 978-1-4691-9018). Constance Caraway and her friends give me the wings to bring history to life, with this riveting story.

I have been updating the format [to match my recent books], as well as creating the graphics.


Constance Caraway P.I.

Coming Tomorrow

The Name Game – United States Style

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How Did These

States Get

Their Names?

The study of place names and their origins, known as toponymy, can reveal a lot about human society as a whole. Did you know that almost every country in the world can place the origin of its name in one of only four categories? These are either a directional description of the country, a feature of the land, a tribe or ethnic group that lived there, or after an important person. Now, let’s see if the same thing applies to some of the United States.

10. Arizona

There’s a bit of a mystery surrounding the name of Arizona, with two versions of the story circulating out there. One says that Arizona comes from the Basque aritz onak, which translates to ‘good oak’. The name is said to have been given due to the many oak trees in the area, which reminded the Basque settlers of their home country. The other version says that the word actually comes from the Spanish, who called the region Arizonac, which itself was a corruption from a word in the native Tohono O’odham language, spoken in the area.  Ali-shonak loosely translates to ‘small spring’ and is in reference to the 1736 discovery of some rich silver veins located near some clear springs in the area. That silver didn’t last for long, but it made people aware of the existence of a place called Arizona.

After the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo in 1848, when the boundary between the US and Mexico was drawn at the Rio Grande and the Gila River, Arizona was part of New Mexico. But soon after its annexation, people living in what is now Arizona wanted a separate status from New Mexico. Several names were suggested for the new state, among which was also “Gadsonia.” It was proposed as a means to honor James Gadsden, the man who negotiated the purchase of land south of the Gila River. Nevertheless, in 1863, the name Arizona won out, and the rest is history.

9. Maine

Did you know that Maine is the sole state whose name contains just one syllable, and it’s the only one in the lower 48 to border only one other (New Hampshire)? Anyway, people aren’t entirely sure where its name comes from. The first time it appeared in writing was in 1622 when it was mentioned in a charter of the Council of New England as a province. The region was to be given to two English Royal Navy veterans, Sir Ferdinando Gorges and Captain John Mason. Captain Mason called his portion of the province New Hampshire, while Gorges proposed New Somerset for his. New Somerset was strongly disliked by King Charles I, who in 1639 issued another charter saying that it “shall forever hereafter be called and named the Province or County of Mayne and not by any other name or names whatsoever.” Nevertheless, some other names were being proposed in 1819, such as Yorkshire, Lygonia and Columbus, which were to be some other potential candidates for when the province became a proper state one year later as part of the Missouri Compromise.

As of 2001, the state legislature officially adopted the version in which the state draws its name from the no-longer-existing French province of Maine. Up until 1845, historians believed that the connection between the American and French regions was through King Charles’ wife, Queen Henrietta Maria. It was believed that the queen had once owned the French province, but subsequently discovered evidence shows that there was no connection. Furthermore, the king and queen married three years after the name Maineappeared in that previously mentioned charter. Another possible origin story says that Gorges proposed the name himself as a means to honor the village where his ancestors once lived in England. That village is now called Broadmayne, but in a 1086 manuscript, it appears under the name Maine – which in primitive Welsh or Brythonic meant ‘rock’. The most generally accepted version, however, is that the state name was based on a practical nautical term. As its coast is littered with many islands, sailors call the mainland simply “the main” or sometimes “Meyne” – so as to easily distinguish between it and the islands. This practice is still in use today within the Navy.

8. Oregon

Of all the states, Oregon’s name may be the most hotly debated in regard to its origins. There are several theories out there, each of which has its own share of plausible arguments. The most probable among them, however, is that it originated with the Spanish. In fact, the first mention of the term orejón in relation with the region comes from a historical chronicle dated in 1598, written by Spanish explorers who made their way into the area at the time. The term translates to “big-eared” and may be in reference to the natives they encountered there. Another possible Spanish root is that the name comes from oregano, which grows in the southern regions of the state.

Others believe that it comes from oolighan – the Chinook word for the eulachon, a smelt fish found on the Pacific coast and a valuable food source for the native tribes that lived there. Another possible Native American connection would be with the Sioux tribe, who referred to the Columbia River as the “River of the West.” The Sioux may have borrowed some words from the Shoshone, another tribe living in what is now Nevada, among other places, and whose words for river and west are Ogwa and Pe-On respectively.

A different theory talks about the French and their word for hurricane – which is ouragan. It’s believed that French explorers in the area called the Columbia River ‘le fleuve aux ouragans’ or “Hurricane River” because of the strong winds blowing through its gorges. The first use of the word Ouragon appeared in a 1765 petition by Major Robert Rogers to the Kingdom of Great Britain where heasked for an overland expedition as part of the search for the so-called Northern Passage from the Atlantic to the Pacific. Back then, people believed that the Columbia River began somewhere in Minnesota and flowed all the way to the Pacific. In an 18th century French map, the Ouisiconsink(Wisconsin) River was misspelled as “Ouaricon-sint” and broken into two lines, with the “-sint” written below. This incomplete map gave the impression that a river called Ouaricon was flowing westward – and could have possibly been the “River of the West” that spilled into the Pacific.

7. Pennsylvania

If you’ve ever felt that there’s a connection between Pennsylvania and Transylvania, then you’d be right. But the connection has nothing to do with vampires or the two lands themselves, but through the way they were named in the first place. The word Transylvania can be broken down into three parts as follows: trans (which is Latin for over or beyond), sylva (Latin for woods), and nia (which is a common suffix used for nouns and countries). In other words, Transylvania translates to ‘Lands beyond the forest’. Now, when it comes to Pennsylvania, the difference is with the word Penn. Pennsylvania was named in honor of British Admiral William Penn, father to William Penn, the founder of the state. William Penn (senior) actually loaned some money to King Charles II of England, and in return, the king gave his son a tract of land for him to found a Quaker settlement in America.

The younger Penn proposed the name Sylvania, but King Charles II wanted Penn’s name to be included – thus the name Pennsylvania (which translates to Penn’s Woodland). The story goes that William Penn felt embarrassed about it, fearing that people would think that he named it after himself, and petitioned the name be changed to New Wales. But the King’s secretary, who was a devout Christian from Wales, was completely against it – not wanting any connection between his homeland and the Quakers whatsoever.

6. Texas

Texas also goes by the name of The Lone Star State. This is as a way to represent and signify its former status as an independent republic, as well as its struggle for independence from Mexico. That lone star can still be found on the state flag, as well as its seal. But when it comes to its actual name of Texas, its origins can still be linked to the Spanish and by extension, Mexico. The name actually comes from the Caddo – a sedentary tribe of Native Americans who lived in the area around the time when the Spanish made it there.

The Caddo, as well as other tribes that lived in the region, all had the same word, or a similar variation of it, to refer to “friends” and “allies.” That word was teysha, which the Caddo also used as a greeting in the form of “hello, friend.” This greeting was similarly used on the Spanish, who later named the Natives after it. Over the years, that word went through several changes including Tejas, finally settling on Texas. Interestingly enough, Texas’ official motto is “Friendship.”

5. Rhode Island

Back in 1524, an Italian explorer by the name of Giovanni da Verrazzano, working in service for the French crown, was heading towards Florida as part of an expedition to find a way to the Pacific Ocean and establish a trade route with Asia. On his way there, he had to make a stop in North Carolina for some ship repairs. But once he was back on the move, he no longer stuck to the original plan and began heading north instead of south. He went past the Hudson River and Long Island, ending up in Narragansett Bay, which opens up in what is now the Rhode Island Sound. As he was exploring the many islands within and around the bay, he kept a record of his discoveries. In a letter he wrote back to France in July of that same year, he said that he “discovered an Ilande in the form of a triangle, distant from the maine lande 3 leagues, about the bignesse of the Ilande of the Rodes.” Now, Verrazzano originally named that particular island Luisa, in honor of the Queen Mother of France, but in his letter he described the island as being reminiscent of the Island of Rhodes in Greece.

For almost 100 years, his letter was the only description people had about that part of the New World. Over the following decades, his letter was translated and printed into Italian and English, further distributing the idea of a Greek-looking island in North America. Now, there has been some debate about which of the many islands Verrazzano was actually referring to in his letter, and for a time it was believed that it was Aquidneck Island – the largest in Narragansett Bay. Modern-day scholars believe that there’s a better chance that he was actually talking about Block Island, which is also part of the state of Rhode Island today, and better fits Verrazzano’s description. In 1637, Roger Williams, a political and religious leader who also founded the state of Rhode Island, established a settlement on Aquidneck Island. The name was officially given to the island in a 1644 declaration saying: “Aquethneck shall be henceforth called the Isle of Rodes or Rhode-Island.”

4. Idaho

When it comes to state names, Idaho does seem like the kind that sounds Native American, doesn’t it? That’s the main reason why the name was chosen in the first place. Now, Idaho was originally given to the Colorado Territory at the suggestion of George M. Willing, an eccentric lobbyist and industrialist. He claimed that the word comes from the Shoshone language and meant something along the lines of “gem of the mountains” or “light on the line of the mountains.” And it seemed appropriate, given the fact that the name was to be chosen for a new territory around the Pikes Peak region, close to present-day Colorado Springs – a mountainous area. During the debate in the Senate, several other names were proposed, among which were Colorado, as well as Jefferson. But most senators seemed to favor Idaho instead. Luckily, Sen. Joseph Lane, from Oregon, brought to light the fact that no Indian tribe in the area has that word, or something resembling it. As it turned out, and what Willing himself reportedly confirmed some years later, is that he actually invented the word, as well as the meaning he gave for it. The name Colorado was then given instead.

This could have simply been the end of that story, but as it turns out, the word Idaho didn’t fade into obscurity. In fact, it gathered great momentum and vitality among the people living in those parts of North America. In 1861, the same year the Colorado Territory was created, Idaho County was also being established in the Washington Territory. It was christened after a steamship with the same name, which was launched on the Columbia River one year prior. With the whole affair seemingly forgotten, Idaho Territory was nevertheless created in 1863, which also included the previously mentioned Idaho County and other parts of the Washington Territory. Funnily enough, even well into the 20th century, many school books gave Willing’s version for the word Idaho as fact. In any case, there’s another theory circulating out there in regards with the name. Some people attribute it to the Plains Apache whose word for enemy is “ídaahe.”

3. Florida

Juan Ponce de León is a name that should sound at least somewhat familiar, even if you don’t really know what he was famous for – it just has that ring to it, right? Anyway, Ponce de León was a possible crew member in Christopher Columbus’ 1493 voyage to the New Word – though nobody is really sure. A decade later, he served as governor of the eastern part of the Caribbean island of Hispaniola (present-day Dominican Republic). During his time as governor in Hispaniola, he also explored the nearby island of Puerto Rico and became governor of that too. Following some rumors of other possible islands to the northwest of Hispaniola, Ponce de León received exclusive rights from the King of Spain to become governor for life on whatever lands he might discover in that region. In return, he was expected to finance the voyage and future settlements himself. On April 2, 1513, the three ships part of the expedition came across an island, or what they thought to be an island, and named it La Florida.

The name was chosen because of the incredibly verdant and flowering landscape, and because it was the Easter season, which the Spanish called Pascua Florida or Festival of Flowers. Nobody is really certain where they made their first landing in La Florida, but they stayed there for five days before they left. A second voyage took place in 1521 with the intention of colonizing the newly discovered lands. But before the colonists could establish the settlement, they were attacked by the native Calusa warriors. Ponce de León was severely wounded in the skirmish and the colonizing attempt was abandoned. Historians believe that he was hit by a poison-tipped arrow, and died in Cuba. Now, legends have it that he was actually looking for a rumored Fountain of Youth when he discovered Florida, and this is probably why his name is so familiar. Unfortunately, however, there was no mention of any such fountain in any documents at the time, and the story was only attached to him after his death. Furthermore, it’s also believed that he wasn’t the first European to set foot in Florida either. Spanish slavers looking for new prisoners may have made it there in the years prior.

2. Delaware

The state of Delaware is named after the Delaware River. That’s it – that’s the whole story! Well fine, we’ll expand on this a little further. The river itself was first discovered by the Dutch in their attempt to find an alternative route to China in 1609. The leader of that expedition was Henry Hudson, an English navigator under the service of the Dutch East India Company. His discoveries along the East Coast ignited instead the Dutch colonization of North America, and not a new trade route to China. Both Dutch and Swedish settlers established themselves on the lower sections of the river.

Prior to the English expelling the Dutch from their New Netherland colony in 1664, the Delaware and Hudson Rivers were generally known as the South and North Rivers, respectively. After this, however, the North River was officially named after its discoverer, Henry Hudson, while the South River was named after the first governor of Virginia, Sir Thomas West 3rd Baron De La Warr. The South River may have been known to the locals as Delaware prior to the Dutch expulsion, though.

Nevertheless, this De La Warr title is pronounced the same as Delaware, but with a different spelling. Located in Sussex, England, the barony’s name has an Anglo-Norman origin. Now, there are several possibilities as to where this title actually draws it roots from. One possible connection would be with the French La Guerre, which translates to The War. It could also come from the Latin word ager which means field or land. Or from the Breton Gwern – which was a figure in Welsh tradition. The most plausible of these, however, is the French La Guerre – which would make the state of Delaware mean something along the lines of “Of the war.”

1. California

Did you know that some people are naming their kids after popular Game of Thrones characters? Well, naming people and places after fiction isn’t something new. In fact, California was named in the exact same manner. Its name was given by two Spanish sailors, Diego de Becerra and Fortun Ximenez, who landed on the southernmost tip of Baja California in 1533. The two were sent there by Hernán Cortés to claim that land on his behalf. The name was chosen based on a fictional island called California that appeared in a romantic novel at the time, written by Spanish author Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo in the early 16th century. Known as Las Sergas de Esplandián (The Adventures of Esplandián), the novel mentions a mythical island located east of Asia and “very close to the side of the Terrestrial Paradise; and it is peopled by black women, without any man among them, for they live in the manner of Amazons.

In the book, this island was ruled over by Calafia, a warrior queen who once led an army of women and a flock of mythical griffins from the island of California to aid a Muslim army battle against the Christians, who were defending Constantinople. Her name, and by extension the name of the fictional island, are based on the Arabic word Khalifa which is a religious state leader, and known as Caliph in English. The two Spanish navigators named the place California, thinking that the Baja California peninsula they landed on was an island. To be fair, we should also mention that some people believe that California actually comes from an indigenous phrase, kali forno, which means ‘high mountains.’ But equally as important is the fact that many other places and settlements around the world, including in South America, Europe, Australia, and the Philippines, are named California – something which makes the indigenous phrase being the actual origin seem highly unlikely.


The Name Game

– United States Style

Mad Science HOF – WIF Hall of Fame

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Mad Scientists Who

Went Too Far

A staple trope of popular culture, the mad scientist is epitomized by a white robe wearing, frazzle haired harbinger of technology misused and calculations gone awry. But the reality is all too true, and scientists mad or otherwise ill-informed or ill-intentioned have certainly caused chaos in the annals of research. In this account, we look at 10 must-know mad scientists who took their research a little too far, including the Russian serial dog head transplanter, a Spanish researcher who remote controlled a live bull, and the German doctor who probed his own heart.

10. Trofim Lysenko

We may all know about the so-called “Mad Monk of Russia” Rasputin and his exploits, but a mad scientist who touted bizarre theories of agro-science and applied botany led to strange experiments and research implementations on the nation’s food supply. Born in Ukraine in and educated at the Kiev Agricultural Institute, Soviet agricultural pseudo-scientist Trofim Lysenko held a strong position as a trusted agricultural adviser to the brutal dictator Joseph Stalin despite the outrageously unscientific founding principles of his work. Pioneering a technique he called “jarovization,” subsequently renamed as “vernalization,” Lysenko declared that exposing plants to harsh conditions could not only “train” them to withstand a Russian winter and that the adaptations would be passed on to the next generation.

Expert analysts later described such claims as the botanical equivalent to docking the tail of a dog and expecting tailless puppies to be born. While individual plants could become hardier through acclimatization, the claims that crops would inherit the traits and curb famine of course never came to fruition. Lysenko’s beliefs that such traits could be inherited flew in the face of everything scientific and were sharply countered by scientific reality when crops failed to respond. In the ill-founded mix of science and politics, Lysenko was the darling of Joseph Stalin for his pursuit of “socialist genetics” and crusade against believe in Mendelian genetics, a movement which was termed “Lysenkoism.” Even worse, biologists who supported traditional biological truth were censored, suppressed and in numerous cases executed under the Stalin regime in what amount to a brutal pogrom against legitimate biologists at the hands of lethally enforced pseudoscience.

9. William Buckland

The ultimate eccentric, William Buckland presents a textbook case of the mad scientist. Born in Devonshire, England in 1784, Buckland became the inaugural student of geology at Oxford in 1801 following his receipt of a scholarship. But it was in the world of biology that his greatest and most bizarre ambition resided. This British scientist had a very unusual and obsessive way of expressing his dedication to life sciences: his plan was to attempt to sample (by eating) every type of animal on Earth.

The mad scientist held a passion for learning and teaching in odd ways, becoming a most non-sequitur lecturer who yelled while brandishing a hyena skull in close proximity to students’ faces. As a member of the dubious Society for the Acclimatization of Animals, which sought to promote colonial efforts to populate Britain with beasts and birds from distant lands, Buckland did what might be normal for a member of such a society in bringing a laundry list of alien biodiversity to British shores and keeping reptiles, birds of prey, primates, and a hyena under his personal care. Curious, unafraid, and with bizarre taste, Buckland tasted as many animals as he could in his lifetime,ranging from the disgusting and potentially pathogen riddled, such as a bluebottle fly, to the bizarre, including moles and sea slugs, and the downright cruel, reportedly eating puppy flesh.

He became fond of mouse flesh on toast, trying it on repeated occasions. While focusing on tasting animals, it is rumored that Buckland got hold of the 140-year-old preserved heart of King Louis XIV of France and tasted the walls of an Italian cathedral before stating that the so-called blood of martyrs onsite was actually bat urine. Even worse, Buckland taught his son the “joys” of zoological sampling, and Buckland junior indeed went on to follow in his father’s footsteps… or, shall we say, bite marks.

8. Werner Theodor Otto Forssmann

An insanely bold medical scientist from Germany, Berlin-born Werner Forssmann(August 29, 1904-June 1, 1979) is probably the only person who can truly be said to have put their whole heart into their work… literally. Or rather, he put his work into his heart when he pioneered heart catheterization, placing a catheter that extended just over 25 inches through his antecubital vein. Being smooth and slender, the device was able to be pushed along the inside of the vein once the initial incision had been made. Performing such a pioneering procedure on his own body was clearly a high risk choice given the awkwardness of self-operation and chance of suffering a medical emergency in the process, and being unable to get help.

Nonetheless, Forssmann proceeded and then went to the X-ray department, where he obtained a picture of the catheter in his own heart, located within the right auricle. While dangerous, the result of his work was effective and led to great recognition. His efforts were interrupted by World War II when he became a prisoner of war while serving as a Surgeon-Major, held in captivity until 1945. Having survived both his extreme self-experiment and WWII, Dr. Forssmann obtained the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1956. He was previously awarded the Leibniz Medal of the German Academy of Sciences in 1954 and received honorary Professorship at the National University of Cordoba, Argentina in 1961.

7. Vladimir Demikhov

It might seem that there is a correlation between madness on the part of scientists and unfettered accomplishments in certain areas. A researcher of dubious ethics and bizarre intent, Vladimir Demikhov was born in 1916 in Russia, nevertheless becoming known as a paradigm-changing heart transplant pioneer as well as a truly obsessive “mad” scientist who made short-lived two-headed dogs. Demikhov invented the first cardiac assist device at age 21 in the year 1937, going on to complete the first coronary bypass, auxiliary heart transplant and heart and lung transplant. Yet, his reputation for live-saving innovation in medicine was sullied by bizarre experiments centering on transplanting dog’s heads onto other dogs, creating two headed dogs.

Obsessive about this specific experiment, Demikhov did this procedure a shocking 20 times. While his work was deemed unethical by a Soviet Ministry of Health review committee, who ordered him to cease the head transplants, he continued on with his brutal experiments. Miraculously and grotesquely, the doubled-headed canines lived for some time, but all died within less than one month following the transplants. While some people are known for being cruel to humans but kind to animals, the reverse is true in the case of Demikhov, who not only contributed to innovation that would save human lives through great innovation, but protected those who would otherwise be condemned to execution at great personal risk. In the course of WWII, he told superiors that self-inflicted wounds were legitimate battle injuries, sparing Soviet soldiers the death penaltyfor desertion.

6. Jose Delgado

Possibly the most Spanish way to become known as a mad scientist would be to conduct mind control experiments on a fighting bull. Spanish “mad scientist” Jose Delgado (August 8, 1915-September 15, 2011) did exactly that in 1963 when he carried out bizarre experiments including one involving the animal central in the controversial tradition of Spanish bullfighting. A graduate of the University of Madrid, Delgado worked at Yale University with electrode implants that were intended to modify animal behavior through radio frequencies. Implanting the device in a bull, he was able to halt a charge by the angry beast with his device. Not limited to experiments with primates and the“remote controlled bull,” Delgado sought to develop mind control methods that would work on human subjects.

Being less limited by ethical restrictions in Spain compared to the United States, Delgado’s work progressed to include a broad range of experiments, ranging from electrical implants and stimulation to outright mind control. By implanting “brain chips”Delgado was able to trigger, manipulate, direct, and stop a variety of human and animal behaviors. Delgado pursued work on mind control methods as a way to reduce aggression and saw ways to fight tyranny through limitation of conflict. In one case, a female monkey in a compound of his research subjects learned to press a lever, delivering aggression-supressing shocks to a monkey known as a bully. While much of Delgado’s work matches or surpasses modern work, the degree to which much of it was published only in Spanish has limited the use and understanding of his work in the scientific community.

5. Stubbins Ffirth

While a mad scientist who attempts to test and prove the efficacy of cures on themselves is understandable, one researcher took being a guinea pig to a whole new level of crazy. Stubbins Ffirth (1784-1820) was an American doctor in training at the University of Pennsylvania with a dedication to investigating Yellow Fever, which had killed around 10 percent of Philadelphia’s population. Observing a wintertime reduction in Yellow Fever deaths, Ffirth developed a theory that Yellow Fever was not a disease which could be caught through infection, but was an affliction stemming from heat and stress.

Not content with uncertainty and unwilling to wait, he decided to test his beloved hypothesis that Yellow Fever could not be caught by infection. And to do so, he went to shockingly extreme lengths to show that he could not be infected by exposure to Yellow Fever, firmly establishing his work as mad and himself as a crazy scientist. After a series of animal experiments, it was time to expose himself to Yellow Fever. Firstly, he cut himself on the arms and dribbled contaminated vomit from Yellow Fever patients onto the wounds. He placed vomit in his eyes, cooked the vomit and ate it as a pill. After failing to get sick, Ffirth tried other contaminated bodily byproducts and still did not fall ill. Eventually, further research showed that Yellow Fever is contagious; it just requires direct blood transmission through a mosquito bite to be passed on. With that fact being true, Ffirth did not die of Yellow Fever despite the rigors of his research.

4. Robert G. Heath

Pleasure and pain may be closely related, and the desire to measure both factors in human experience has led to some disturbing and bizarre experiments in this tempting area of investigation for the mad scientist. American psychiatrist Robert G. Heath was a blatantly unethical “mad scientist” who engaged in experiments that controlled peoples’ experience of pleasure and pain through receptor stimulation by electrode. His qualifications were impressive, having degrees in psychology and neurology and being the founder of the Tulane University department of psychiatry and neurology at New Orleans.

Seeking to study mental function, Dr. Heath implanted electrodes into subjects’ brains, sometimes leaving them in for months at a time. His most disturbing and ill-founded human experiments included giving a woman a 30-minute orgasm through electrical stimulation and attempting in 1970 to change the orientation of a gay man who had been arrested for marijuana possession through exposure to a female prostitute. In this especially notorious work that undoubtedly contributed to his being seen as a “Strangelovian” person, Dr. Heath combined pleasure center-triggering through electrode implants with arranged sexual activity with a “lady of the evening” who was hired for the experiment and paid $50 for her part in the “research.” Given the nature of his activities and receipt of US government funding, Dr. Heath has been suspected of having been involved in the illegal CIA MK-ULTRA research program on mind control.

3. Ilya Ivanovich Ivanov

We all know the tired movie cliché of the ape-man, but one out-on-a-limb researcher from the Soviet Union was willing to go to great lengths to try and make the concept a reality. Soviet mad scientist Ilya Ivanovich Ivanov was a fan of conservation, captive breeding, and zoology, pursuing a wide range of activities relating to biological diversity investigation. He was also an unethical and highly determined researcher who held the express goal of crossing a human being with a Chimpanzee. Unbounded by ethical considerations, Ivanov was originally willing to try to inseminate an unknowing human female with Chimpanzee sperm.

However, Ivanov realized that he would need consenting volunteers. He sought government backing for work to create the hybrid. Once he actually got to work on trying to make the hybrid, Ivanov began by first trying to inseminate female chimpanzees with human sperm in the hopes of getting them pregnant with the hybrid baby. When these attempts did not pan out, he then attempted to organize experiments to do the reverse, impregnating human women with Chimpanzee semen. However, before he could arrange participants and plan the project, the obsessed researcher was arrested and exiled to what has now become Kazakhstan. Apart from Ivanov’s ill-fated and unethical human hybridization efforts, he succeeded in creating other animal hybrids. These inter-special creations included a horse-zebra cross, mixed species rodent offspring, and a bison-cow cross.

2. Harry Harlow

Skirting the ethical bounds of science in a bid to advance research is something that a researcher might do secretively. But one mad scientist who ruined the lives of many monkeys through questionable and cruel research was oddly cold and unabashed in his description of his work. American psychologist Harry Harlow was known for bizarre experiments on monkeys that combined less than scientific research questions with brutal and ethically fraught methods of investigation. A researcher at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, Harlow placed juvenile monkeys in isolation chambers for 1-to-2 years at a time away from their mothers. Harlow compared the psychology and behavior of those raised with a real mother with those having only a cloth doll.

Widely criticized for his brutal experiments, he was also criticized for the theoretical basis of his work in seeking to study the importance of “love” in primate development due to the unscientific nature of the term “love.” Bold in his cruel terminology, his way of talking had a sadistic ring to it. After all, he was known to openly refer to his device for artificial primate insemination as a “rape rack” and the isolation chamber in which baby monkeys were placed as the “Pit of Despair,” terms which did not seem to bother him. Not surprisingly, Harlow’s work caused significant psychological and physical distress,leading monkeys to engage in self-mutilating behaviors even after removal from the “pit.”

1. Giovanni Aldini

Many Italian superstitions involve fears of the dead coming back to Earth and have led to the creation of elaborate rituals to prevent such occurrences. And those intent on preventing the return of the dead or otherwise un-dead would not have been too happy to meet a man who appeared to do just that, albeit by “scientific” means. Italian mad scientist Giovanni Aldini was a notorious yet officially awarded and decorated Bologna-born physicist known for his bizarre and gruesome electrical experiments on corpses. Working not only with dead animals but human remains in ghastly tests with an electrical probe, Aldini “activated” corpses and caused them to appear to return to life, being animated in different parts depending on where shocks were applied.

The experiments where he electrified human bodies were often carried out in public view, being something of a showman. Among his exploits were his public 1803 tests on the body of an Englishman, who had been executed on charges of murder, at the Royal College of Surgeons in London. Although his work was gruesome, there were many serious efforts inherent in his work. He strongly believed in the benefits of electrical shock therapy, from which he reported many improvements in patient condition. He was made a Knight of the Iron Crown by the Austrian Emperor for his pioneering research efforts and achievements. In the modern era, the legacy from his efforts is represented by practices and achievements in the form of deep brain stimulation, used to address certain motor function and behavior-based disorders.


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Interesting Theories

That Are Difficult

to Believe

Throughout history, there have been people who have tried to explain the complexity of the universe, and even something as basic as our everyday reality. While these theories may provide some answers to the mysteries of life, they can also be confusing and boggle the mind. These are 10 of those theories, which are incredibly hard to understand.

 10. The Black Swan Theory

Developed by Nassim Nicholas Taleb, a professor of finance, the Black Swan Theory isn’t as hard to grasp as it is to realize its implications. According to the theory, a black swan is an event that is supposedly impossible to predict, but has massive ramifications and then is rationalized with hindsight afterward.

A major black swan event was the 9/11 attacks. If it had been foreseeable that terrorists would force their way into the cockpits of passenger planes, take them over with box cutters, and then crash the planes into American landmarks, then more precautions probably would have been taken to ensure that none of those steps could have happened.

Then after the attacks, experts and pundits weighed in and tried to use hindsight to explain why the attacks happened. Eventually, it seems as if 9/11 was inevitable because poor airline security allowed it to happen. In response to these rationalizations, airline security increased to ensure it never happens again.

Here’s the problem with that type of logic and rationalization: the next major, world-changing terrorist attack won’t be people flying planes into buildings, because we have safeguarded ourselves against that and it won’t be as shocking. It will be some other black swan event that very few people will see coming.

Another example of a black swan event for many people was the election of Donald Trump. Most people did not predict him to be the Republican nominee, let alone win the Presidency. The polls didn’t indicate that he was anywhere near the lead, and even his own party was distancing themselves from him. However, when Trump did win the election, many of the big news organizations and the Democrats attempted to use hindsight to rationalize how he won.

Essentially, the Black Swan Theory is about being aware of what you are not aware of. No problem, right? Nassim’s advice is just to always assume a catastrophe could happen at any time.

9. The Potato Paradox

Let’s say you have 100 pounds of potatoes. These are special potatoes that are 99 percent water weight. Now, you decide to leave the potatoes out to dry, because they taste better when they are 98 percent water. When you go to get your potatoes, how much do they weigh? Logically, one would think that it would weigh a shade lower than 99 pounds, because 1 percent of water weight would be 1.0101 pounds.

Well, the answer is actually 50 pounds. That’s right, by just losing 1 percent of water weight, the potatoes would weight half as much.

It comes down to ratios. When the potatoes are 99 percent water, that means that there is 1 percent solid mass. That makes the ratio of liquid to solids 99:1. However, when it dehydrates, it changes the ratio of water to solids from 98 percent water and 2 percent solids, which is a ratio of 98:2, or 49:1. That means the weight dropped in half to 50 pounds.

In case you don’t believe us, this is the equation:

(99%)(100) – (98%)(100 – x) = x

(0.99)(100) – (0.98)(100 – x) = x

99 – (98 – 0.98x) = x

99 – 98 + 0.98x = x

1 + 0.98x = x

1 + 0.98x – 0.98x = x – 0.98x

1 = 0.02x

1 / 0.02 = 0.02x / 0.02

50 = x

100 – x = 100 – 50 = 50

8. Simulacra and Simulations

Jean Baudrillard was a French philosopher, and one of his most famous treatise is “Simulacra and Simulations,” which was published in 1981. The very confusing theory essentially contends that our reality is fake, and we are so far removed from real life that everything is hyperreal. Baudrillard Even goes as far as to suggest that our life is just a simulation and we aren’t even aware of it.

To illustrate his point, Baudrillard uses a very short story by Jorge Luis Borges called “On Exactitude in Science.” In the story (that is only a paragraph long), there is a kingdom, where they have made a detailed map of the kingdom that is a scale of 1:1. The map is then spread out over top of the kingdom, and after a while people think the map is really the kingdom. He says that our reality is pretty much just a man-made map that is covering real life.

According to Baudrillard, we got to this artificial reality in four steps. On the websiteCritical Theory, they use a pumpkin to show how the steps work, so we’re going to keep with that theme.

  1. It is the reflection of a basic reality: This is an imitation that is as close as possible to resembling real life. It’s a picture of a pumpkin with no special lighting or filters, just a plain old picture of a pumpkin.
  1. It masks and perverts a basic reality: The picture has been altered to make the pumpkin look better. Lights are added and it has a nice filter, but it’s still a picture of pumpkin.
  1. It masks the absence of a basic reality: A picture of a pumpkin pie made from canned pumpkin sitting beside a fresh pumpkin. This gives the impression that the pie is made from fresh pumpkins, even though it’s canned.
  1. It bears no relation to any reality whatever: it is its own pure simulacrum. This would be a picture of pumpkins with a pumpkin spice latte, which contains absolutely no pumpkin at all. The pumpkin taste is made from spices like nutmeg and cinnamon.

What Baudrillard proposes is that modern reality has as much realness as a pumpkin spice latte has real pumpkin. Our reality, which is constructed by the media and the government, is as real and as authentic as Walt Disney World or professional wrestling.

7. The Dichotomy Paradox

Zeno of Elea was a Greek Philosopher who lived from 490 to 430 B.C. He is mostly known for his riddles and paradoxes, and one of the most famous of them is the Dichotomy Paradox, which means “The Paradox of Cutting in Two.”

In the paradox, Zeno is studying and decides to take a break. For his break, he wants to walk to a nearby orchard. To get to the orchard, he has to walk halfway there, and this takes a finite amount of time. The second half of his journey can also be split into two, and it takes a finite amount of time to walk that distance. Then, the third quarter of the journey can also be split into two.

This is where the paradox arises because distance can infinitely be divided by two, and that would mean that Zeno would never reach the orchard. Because, according to Zeno, if you were to add up all the finite time over an infinite distance, you would get an infinite amount of time and distance, which means that motion doesn’t really exist.

At this point, you may be thinking that Zeno is clearly an idiot (or really,really high) because if you walk from one spot to another, you get there. Nevertheless, the paradox wasn’t solved until over 2,000 years later by mathematician Georg Cantor. He proved that it’s possible to add up an infinite amount of finite numbers.

6. Vasiliev Equations

Unless you’re mathematically gifted and/or highly educated in math, physics is one of the most difficult topics to understand. And one of the most complicated theories in physics, which even physicists have a hard time understanding, is the concept of Vasiliev Equations, which was developed by Mikhail Vasiliev and Efin Fradkin of the Lebedev Institute in Moscow in the late 1980s. If their theory is correct, then it could explain where space and time come from.

George Musser, an editor at Scientific America, decided to take a crack at explaining the theory that many physicists don’t understand. He said that the theory is based on the spin of particles. Basically, all particles of the same type have the same amount of spin. For example, a photon has a rotation of spin-1, which means that it needs to rotate 360 degrees to look the same again. If the particle has a spin-2, like a gravitation, then it would need to rotate 180 degrees. There is also spin-1/2, which means it would need to rotate 720 degrees to look the same. The lowest it can go is spin-0, which is the Higgs field, and it looks the same no matter how it’s rotated.

How high the spin could go is where Vasiliev Equations comes in. They contend that there is an infinite number of spins; however, physicists thought that particles with infinite spin was impossible. For one thing, it appeared to go against the leading fully unified theory of nature, which is string theory. In string theory, if there were an infinite number of spins, then the Laws of Nature would seize up.

However, physicists have recently learned that in curved spacetime, infinite spin rates could be possible. If our universe exists in curved spacetime, then Vasiliev’s Theory would support an important aspect of string theory called the holographic principle; meaning that Vasiliev’s Theory can be reconciled with string theory. But again, that is only if we live in curved spacetime.

 5. Maxwell’s Equations

James Clerk Maxwell was only 34-years-old when he published one of the most important papers in physical science, “A dynamical theory of the electromagnetic field.” When it was released in 1865, physicists couldn’t understand the math, and mathematicians couldn’t understand the physical aspects of it. Because it was so hard to understand, it was essentially ignored for two decades.

One person it did inspire was Albert Einstein, who used it as a starting point for his Special Theory of Relativity. In fact, Maxwell was formulating ideas that eventually could have led him to what Einstein discovered, but Maxwell died at the age of 48 in 1879. Einstein wouldn’t make the discovery until 1905.

We won’t go into a lot of detail surrounding the equations, but there are four, which are pictured above. They essentially explain the world of electromagnetics. The four equations describe how electric charges and currents create electric and magnetic fields. It also explains how an electric field can generate a magnetic field, and vice versa.

However, that is just the very basic explanation of what Maxwell’s equations are about. Beyond that, it is too hard to explain and many electrical engineers and physicists don’t fully grasp it. So, yeah, shockingly… neither do we.

4. Gödel’s Incompleteness Theorem

Kurt Gödel was born in Germany, and later immigrated to the United States. He is considered one of the most important mathematicians of the 20th century and he’s also thought to be the greatest logician since Aristotle, who died 2,200 years prior to Gödel being born.

Gödel has a few theories that are hard to wrap your head around, but his most famous and important work, which is incredibly hard to understand, is his Incompleteness Theorem. According to Encyclopedia Britannica, the theorem states:

…that within any axiomatic mathematical system there are propositions that cannot be proved or disproved on the basis of the axioms within that system; thus, such a system cannot be simultaneously complete and consistent.

Did you follow all of that, or did your nose start to bleed while thinking about it, too?

In order to understand the theory a little bit better, it’s best to go back and explain what the mathematical world was like before Gödel published his theory in 1931. Before Gödel, mathematicians thought that all math theories could be solved with proofs that showed them to be correct or incorrect. An example used by the website Number Sleuth is Goldbach’s Conjecture, which is that all even numbers starting with two can be expressed by two prime numbers. For example, 2+2=4, 11+13=24, and 601+797 = 1,398, and so on. Before Gödel, people thought that this could be proved to be correct or incorrect.

What the Incompleteness Theorem did was show that something like Goldbach’s Conjecture is actually impossible to prove, because there is an infinite amount of numbers and if just one even number couldn’t be expressed as two prime numbers, then it would be incorrect. So that means Goldbach’s Conjecture is either true, but isn’t provable, or it is false and the falsehood cannot be proved.

Essentially, what the Incompleteness Theorem proved is that there was a difference between mathematical truth and mathematical proof. Mathematical proof of Goldbach’s Conjecture is that all even numbers up to 4 × 1018 can be expressed by a prime number. However, the mathematical truth of Goldbach’s Conjecture will never be proved to be correct or incorrect. Of course, this doesn’t only apply to Goldbach’s Conjecture, but to all theories in math.

3. The Theory of General Relativity

One of the most famous theories of all time is also one of the hardest to understand: Albert Einstein’s Theory of General Relativity.

Before we get to General Relativity, there are two things we should go over. The first is that in 1905, Einstein published the Special Theory of Relativity, which basically said that time and space are linked. In fact, they are the same thing – something called spacetime. You’ve probably heard Doc Brown talk about that. So since they are the same thing, that means space can’t be warped without warping time, and vice versa. However, the theory had limitations. Notably, it only dealt with constant speeds and it failed to explain acceleration, and acceleration is something that everything in the universe does.

Secondly, before General Relativity, thanks to Newton, the belief was that objects fell to earth because of gravitational pull. However, objects in the universe don’t move because they are pulled; instead they are moved when they are pushed. Think of a rocket – it goes into space because booster engines push it into space. So the idea that gravity pulled instead of pushed was unusual in the world of physics.

This is where the Theory of General Relativity comes in. What Einstein showed is that when mass comes into contact with spacetime, it can warp spacetime. This warping is actually what is causing gravity; space is pushing us down on Earth. This happens because mass will always follow the simplest path in spacetime, but if spacetime is curved, mass will follow that curve toward the object with the most mass. This also means that the further you are away from the Earth’s surface, the slower time goes because time is less warped.

The Theory of General Relativity was a paradigm shift for many people in the world of physics and set the foundation for a branch of physics that is still being used today. However, it is not only the leading theory in physics, it is at odds with the other top theory, which is…

2. Quantum Mechanics

Famed mathematician Richard Feynman once said that “if you think you understand quantum mechanics, you don’t understand quantum mechanics.” So this one is going to be fun!

Quantum mechanics (QM) is the attempt to explain subatomic particles at the nanoscopic level. The mechanics of subatomic particles are different than the mechanics of larger objects. For example, the same rules of size and speed don’t apply. Also, with larger objects, they exist at a specific time and in a specific space. For instance, you exist at this moment wherever you are reading this sentence, whereas the objects in quantum mechanics exist in a haze of probability.

According to Live Science, there are three revolutionary principles of quantum mechanics. The first is quantized properties. According to classical mechanics, properties like position, speed, and color should exist on a smooth, continuous spectrum. However, scientists learned that some properties can sometimes only occur in specific, set amounts. It’s similar to a dial that clicks from number to number. This “clicking” of the dial is what scientists called quantized. Secondly, light, once only thought to be waves, can actually act as both a wave and a particle simultaneously. The third principle is that matter can also act like a wave, but is usually a particle.

Currently, QM is being used to study string theory and loop quantum gravity. Researchers are hoping that QM will be the key to unlocking many of the mysteries in the universe.

1. We Live on the Event Horizon of a Four Dimensional Black Hole

The Big Bang Theory itself isn’t exactly that hard to understand, because the name is pretty self-explanatory. Essentially, everything in the universe exploded from singularity, which was a tiny speck of infinite density. While the Big Bang Theory does explain a lot about the birth of the universe, there are several problems with the theory. For example, it doesn’t explain what caused the Big Bang in the first place.

Since the Big Bang was proposed in 1927, researchers have been trying to figure out a model that would account for these problems. One of the most mind bending theories comes from the Perimeter Institute for Theoretic Physics in Waterloo, Ontario. Their theory is that our universe may be a three-dimensional “wrapping” around a four-dimensional black hole’s event horizon.

Totally makes sense, right? Perhaps we should back up a minute.

According to the Big Bang Theory, our universe exploded out of singularity. Well, singularity is also found at the center of black holes and in our three-dimensional universe, black holes have a two-dimensional event horizon. However, if a black hole had four dimensions, something humans can’t conceptualize but is theoretically possible, then the event horizon would be three dimensional.

Their theory is that our universe exists on the event horizon in a giant, four-dimensional black hole and our Big Bang was actually a three-dimensional “mirage” of a collapsing star in a universe that is profoundly different than our own. After the collapse, our universe expanded and essentially wrapped around the event horizon.

If their theory is correct, and so far math has yet to disprove it, it could also mean that every time a black hole is born in our universe, then it could spawn another two-dimensional universe.


Believe Them or Not Theorum

– WIF Conspiracies

The NULL Solution = Episode 54

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The NULL Solution = Episode 54

…Our heroes on Earth ponder that which they call Lorgan

Pondering Chimp by Christopher Lane

Prez Roy comments on what they see through the space telescope, “All I know is that I never want to be on Lorgan’s bad side. Of all the bad things… and likewise we cannot rule out the good… that go happen, say in the last 4000 years, may be attributable to Lorgan.”

Ancient Israel near Bethlehem {Holy Bible}

After Jesus was born in Bethlehem in Judea, during the time of King Herod, Magi from the east came to Jerusalem 2and asked, “Where is the one who has been born King of the Jews? We saw his star in the east and have come to worship him.”

3When King Herod heard this he was disturbed, and all Jerusalem with him. 4When he had called together all the people’s chief priests and teachers of the law, he asked them where the Christ was to be born. 5”In Bethlehem in Judea,” they replied, “for this is what the prophet has written:

6’But you, Bethlehem, in the land of Judah,
are by no means least among the rulers of Judah;
for out of you will come a ruler
who will be the shepherd of my people Israel’.”

7Then Herod called the Magi secretly and found out from them the exact time the star had appeared. 8He sent them to Bethlehem and said, “Go and make a careful search for the child. As soon as you have found him, report to me, so that I too may go and worship him.”

9After they had heard the king, they went on their way, and the star they had seen in the east went ahead of them until it stopped over the place where the child was. 10When they saw the star, they were overjoyed. 11On coming to the house, they saw the child with his mother Mary, and they bowed down and worshiped Him. Then they opened their treasures and presented Him with gifts of gold and of incense and of myrrh. 12And having been warned in a dream not to go back to Herod, they returned to their country by another route.

Ancient Mars near the Plain of Xanthe {Martian Diaries}

1The spaceship Explorer, which did stop by and visit a red planet, on their way back from planet of their curious intent. The crewmen of Eridanus origin, with no intent of malice, did previous discover a man who was called a prophet. 2The prophet’s name was Isaiah and he was an old man, near death and speaking to any who would hear.

 The leader of the alien Eridanians, a being of short stature and cloaked in the garb of the day, that did tell his underlings that they should take Isaiah from his misery, so they could examine him back at their home world. 4Without malice or bad intent did they snatch him up, before his last breath be taken, along with artifacts from the river Nile valley.

5They did care for old Isaiah, as to preserve his countenance. Alas, they did land on that red planet, to get a closer look at it, a bright light did appear above them. 6Calamity did strike the men of Eridanus, striking them dead, before they could return to their world.

7And so Isaiah was returned to his family, by the bright light, to live out his life in peace, with the promise of a Savior fresh on his mind. 8His prophesies did come true, in the time of Herod the Great, ruler of Judea of the Holy Roman Empire.

Fletcher Fitch sees the light, “Ahhh, I see your point. Who’s going to blame a darn ball for deflecting back a nuke to its sender?  We are grateful that United Korea won’t be a deterrent to world peace anymore.”

This discussion about the mysterious present is far from over…


The NULL Solution =

Episode 54


page 57

Your John Hancock – Declaration of Independence Signers

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Forgotten Signers

of the

Declaration of

Independence

What elementary school student in America couldn’t tell you about Benjamin Franklin and Thomas Jefferson, two of the most famous signers of one of the three most momentous documents of American history? Most middle school students could go a little further and tell you about second president John Adams or John Hancock, President of the Continental Congress, if only because of his most prominent signature.

That leaves 52 people who risked execution by making it official that the colonies were, and of right ought to have been, free, independent states whom most people probably couldn’t name. That doesn’t mean they weren’t themselves fascinating figures who are owed more prominent positions in posterity than history has provided them. Let’s do our small part to correct this.

10. James Wilson

A successful lawyer and esteemed judge by the time he became a congressional delegate for Pennsylvania, James Wilson had lent a practical sensibility to the revolution with his 1774 pamphlet “Considerations of the Nature and Extent of Legislative Authority in British Parliament” which argued that parliament had no authority to write laws for the colonies. It had been particularly popular reading among the congressional delegates in the meetings leading up to the Declaration.

Why He’s Forgotten:

In no small part is because of how badly he disgraced himself from 1777 on with gambling, speculation, and profiteering. The fledgling nation didn’t want to draw extra attention to someone like that after he’d served his purpose. He also was accused in 1779 of raising food prices in Philadelphia so high it led to riots that nearly cost him his life. These were the sorts of things that could overshadow a career that had never really become iconic with the public anyway.

Curiously, in the stage musical 1776, possibly his best opportunity to become a household name again, James Wilson is portrayed as voting in favor of declaring independence only as a means of remaining historically anonymous because doing so would be going with the crowd. This is quite ridiculous, as Wilson had clearly been a vocal advocate of separation before votes for independence were even being discussed, but the fact the authors of 1776 got away with it showed how far his star had fallen.

9. William Whipple

A former sailor who’d taken part in the

slave trade in the West Indies, William Whipple at least partially redeemed himself from a modern perspective by being one of the few members of Continental Congress who freed his slaves during his lifetime. During the Revolution he took the rank of brigadier general, distinguished himself at the vital American victory at Saratoga, and lost a leg from a cannon ball in 1778.

Why He’s Forgotten:

One of the contributions to his late life unpopularity was that he took a job in 1782 as the New Hampshire Superintendent of Finance, which unfortunately brought with it collecting taxes. It made him something of a pariah for doing a vital job, but also the fact it was an extremely difficult job (not aided by health problems his lost leg brought on) meant he did not collect enough money to please his colleagues either. Even a Founding Father sometimes cannot escape public scorn just for taking an unpopular but necessary job.

8. Elbridge Gerry

A Harvard graduate who became a merchant, and then was elected to Massachusetts Legislature in 1774, Elbridge Gerry’s main duties during his time in the Continental Congress (aside from signing the most important document) was in the naval and commercial departments. After the Revolution, he was part of the the Constitutional Convention, and came out of it hating the Constitution too much to sign it.

Why He’s Forgotten:

While the man himself is not remembered, he has a sort of unflattering legacy. Following his 1811 election as governor of Massachusetts, it was observed that the districts in his state were drawn to unfairly favor the Democratic-Republicans, which was dubbed “the salamander” by a cartoon in the Boston Globe. Perhaps you’ve heard the portmanteau “Gerrymander” lately in this politically charged climate. It’s the sort of thing that can easily overshadow the rest of a career, however distinguished it might have been.

7. Edward Rutledge

During his time in the Continental Congress as a delegate from South Carolina, former law student Edward Rutledge stood out in two ways according to the National Park Service. For one, he proposed a delay when the motion for independence was first made on June 7. Ostensibly it was to allow the colonies to arm themselves and reach out to foreign powers for alliances. The other way was that he was a mere 26 years old at the time, making him the youngest signatory. Indeed, today he’d be four years too young to even be a member of the Senate.

During the Revolutionary War he joined the army as a militia captain. While he was initially successful at the Battle of Port Royal, during the Battle of Charleston in 1780 he and thousands of other American soldiers were captured. He spent the rest of the war in irons.

Why He’s Forgotten:

Rutledge’s position as a political moderate left him initially opposed to the movement for independence. This has led a number of dramas, such as HBO’s John Adams to paint him as being completely opposed to revolution. It’s really quite unfair, as by the time of the vote he was the one who persuaded the rest of the divided South Carolinian delegates to vote for independence. Still, history found it harder to view the cool-headed, initially incorrect moderate as one of the inspirational founders of the nation, even though he was a military hero.

6. Richard Stockton

This delegate from New Jersey was such a successful lawyer before the revolution that King George III himself expressed a favorable opinion of him. Nevertheless, taxes such as the infamous Stamp Act had left Richard Stockton deeply in favor of independence, and in fact he became a delegate after New Jersey voters learned in 1776 that their original delegates intended to vote to stay with Great Britain, so he was one of two swapped in.

Why He’s Forgotten:

 Stockton was by far the least lucky signatory. In 1776 he was attempting to save his family after the British army invaded New Jersey and was captured. He held out in prison for five cold, agonizing weeks with the threat of execution for treason hanging over him before being offered a pardon in exchange for swearing to not take part in the rest of the war. Stockton accepted and resigned from  Congress, which was viewed as a general renouncement of the Revolution. He went back to teaching law, but tragically he was afflicted with cancer of the lip and lived only two more years, in pain to the end and widely held to be the Benedict Arnold of the Continental Congress.

5. Joseph Hewes

Before he became a delegate from North Carolina, Joseph Hewes was a highly successful sea merchant with a fleet of ships. So while in congress, he was basically one of the resident experts on maritime issues for the colonies. This might sound minor relative to the issues of the fate of nations, but it was actually a much-disputed issue during the debates. During the war itself, he offered his ships to be used for the Continental Navy.

Why He’s Forgotten:

Hewes didn’t survive the war. In 1779, he attended his final session of congress twelve days before his death on November 10. Thusly he was not able to continue distinguishing himself in the eyes of the new nation. His wife had also died in 1766 and he never remarried or had any children, so there was less of a family line to keep his name in the public consciousness.

4. Francis Lewis

Francis Lewis was born in Britain, went to America to found successful businesses around Philadelphia and New York, and became a military contractor. When the Seven Years War was started by George Washington, Lewis volunteered to join the army as an aide to General Hugh Mercer. Despite the relatively safe position he was taken prisoner. At the end of the war he was awarded 5,000 acres of land by the government of New York. Thus when he became one of the New York delegates, he was one of the greatest success stories among the distinguished traitors.

Why He’s Forgotten:

It turned out that the war would cost him almost everything. Long Island was lost to the colonials almost immediately during the war and with it his wife Elizabeth and their estate. His estate was destroyed and his wife treated abominably, the record stating that she had to sleep on the ground for months. Washington himself had to literally threaten to abuse the wife of a British official who’d been taken prisoner, though the long abusive treatment had left Elizabeth Lewis traumatized and she died shortly after. Though Lewis long survived the war, dying in 1803 at age 90, he lost his fortune and fell into obscurity.

3. Caesar Rodney

A former sheriff and delegate from Delaware, Caesar Rodney certainly seems like he should have been one of the most remembered figures to sign the Declaration. He was credited with casting the deciding vote for independence by providing one of two votes among the Delaware delegates for it. On the night before the vote he had ridden 80 miles through a storm to be present. And he also had the best name on this list, if we’re being honest.

Why He’s Forgotten:

Rodney’s vote actually went against the will of his constituents. Even as he made the most important vote of his life, his base turned against him and he was subsequently voted out of office. Public opinion had swung back in his favor by 1782 sufficiently for him to be elected back to national congress but he wasn’t healthy enough to take the office.

On the subject of his health, at the time Caesar Rodney signed the Declaration he was suffering from the cancer that would kill him eight years later. When he made that historic signature it had eaten away roughly half his face. He is thusly not included in John Trumbull’s famous painting of the vote and fits oddly with the way Americanhistorical propaganda tried to deify the Founding Fathers. Even the Delaware state quarter, which features him, does so with him at some distance on a horse. Some people just have to put up with ten times as much to receive one tenth the acknowledgement they deserve.

2. John Hart

John Hart came from such a simple, rustic farm background that the exact date he was born was not recorded except that it was around 1715. From that simple background he still became enough of a success that he spent ten years in the New Jersey state assembly. After that he went from committee to committee on his way to the Continental Congress.

Why He’s Forgotten:

The ink on the Declaration was scarcely dry before extreme hardship befell Hart. Most of all, just months after that momentous event, his wife died on October 8, 1776. He had scarce time to mourn before the British army invaded New Jersey and he became a particularly highly valued target. He had to resort to hiding in caves to avoid capture. Eventually the British gave up the chase and he was able to safely return home. He’d lost none of his patriotism, and in 1778, allowed Washington to camp the Continental Army – all 12,000 of them – on his estate for two days while Washington planned new strategies. Perhaps because of the strain all these horrible events and efforts for his country had placed on him, Hart fell ill and died in 1779. Much too early to take a direct part in shaping the new nation.

1. Robert Morris

Merchants were hardly unique among the members of the Continental Congress. This delegate from Pennsylvania took it a bit further than his peers. During the war, Robert Morris managed the financing and equipping of the Continental Army, but stood to profit immensely because he had all supplies go through his company, and thus the new nation was indebted to him in a more monetary sense than most.

On the other, more benevolent hand, during one of the low points of the revolution in 1776, he loaned $10,000 to the Continental Army to allow it to resupply itself in time to attack for the famous Delaware River Crossing and Battle of Trenton. He later provided credit that allowed the victory at the Battle of Yorktown. He even was one of the original architects of the National Bank.

Why He’s Forgotten:

All of his profiteering caught up with him quickly and alienated many, and in 1779 he was under investigation. Even though he was cleared of charges, criticisms from such iconic figures as Thomas Paine blotted his political and financial career. After the war his bullish financial practices would land him in debtor’s prison for three and a half years, dying in poverty.


Your John Hancock

 

– Declaration of Independence Signers

Roman Almanac – WABAC Into History

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Fascinating Facts

About the Romans

“Where is the WABAC Machine going to take us this time, Mr. Peabody?

“Set the WABAC for Ancient Rome, Sherman My Boy.”

Ancient Rome had a huge effect on the world as we know it today. Many of the ideas they had in regards to governing and infrastructure are still in use in the modern world, and similar to Ancient Egypt, everyone knows quite a lot about the Ancient Romans.

 However, just like with the Ancient Egyptians, when a culture becomes that ingrained in the public consciousness, we tend to learn a lot of things that aren’t actually true. Some of the stranger or less convenient facts get swept entirely under the rug. The Ancient Romans are a fascinating culture, and in some ways stranger or more disgusting than you might have imagined.

10. Christians Weren’t Fed To Lions and Many Tales of Martyrdom Were Exaggerated

One of the most popularly told tales about the Romans is how they fed the Christians to the lions for having the audacity to start a new religion and do their own thing. This has been recounted in so much popular culture it is staggering, and at this point it may be impossible to remove it from the public mindset. The sad part here is that it is incredibly untrue, but the untruth has become so ingrained it may as well be fact to most people. Not only are the stories about feeding Christians to lions without any real basis, but many scholars argue that there is no real proof for the kind of sustained, and targeted persecution that many later Christian writers would put forth.

There were, truthfully, only a handful of scattered years where Christians were ever targeted specifically at all, and many of the more colorful accounts of martyrdom are completely impossible to verify, and there is good reason to believe many of the stories were much exaggerated. Now, this doesn’t mean that Christians weren’t ever put to death for reasons that involved their beliefs, but some scholars argue that in many cases where a Christian was killed for being Christian, it was because they made statements refusing the divinity of the emperor or something similar while in court. This wasn’t a specifically targeted persecution, even if it was a difficult position for them to be in – not wanting to say someone is divine when they do not believe they are.

9. In Ancient Rome the Word Decimate had an Entirely Different Meaning

When we use the word decimate today, we just mean to destroy something really badly, often completely or entirely. This is essentially the correct meaning now because of common usage, but when the term was first coined, its meaning was much more literal. As you might imagine from the root of the word, it originally had to do with the number ten. When a group of soldiers committed some crime, such as desertion, the entire troop would be punished to put them in their place. They would isolate the entire group, and then have them draw lots to decide who was going to die.

The Romans would then force those who were to live to kill the tenth of the troops that drew lots. This meant that, quite literally, they were removing one tenth of that troop, or “decimating” it. This was one of the earlier forms of something referred to today as military discipline, where an entire troop is punished for a few men’s infractions, to make sure the entire troop self-polices. This can be seen some today in modern armies where someone will make a mistake and the entire unit will be forced to pay for the mistake. However, in today’s modern world we don’t kill our troops, we just make them do push-ups or something similar.

8. Romans Shared a Sponge on a Stick for Cleaning Up After Using Public Toilets

Today we like to think of Romans as very hygienic for their time. In fact, we often consider them a beacon of cleanliness that the world didn’t see anything like for quite some time. They had their own sewer and water systems and they had public baths and were very much into being clean. However, the truth is that many of the Roman’s habits would disgust many people today who live in some of the countries without much infrastructure. For example, their public bathrooms were a horror show. It wasn’t uncommon for gigantic rats to come out of the sewer, and because they contained gases, fires could erupt randomly.

To make matters worse, the Romans at public toilets shared a single sponge on a stick that they used to clean up after using the bathroom. They would use the sponge on a stick to wipe themselves up, rinse it, and then leave it for the next person to use. Most people today would be absolutely disgusted by the thought of using a sponge to clean themselves that a bunch of random people had also used. And while people think they were clean, the Romans didn’t actually bathe traditionally, per se. Instead, they would cover themselves in oils, and then scrape it off their skin with an instrument called a strigil.

7. The Romans Invented an Early Form of Concrete

The Romans did an incredible amount of building, and their gigantic structures as well as their infrastructure such as aqueducts are one of the things they are most famous for. One of the biggest reasons we still talk about their buildings so much is because so many of them have managed to withstand the test of time. They managed this by using an early form of concrete, something that was essentially unheard of at that time in history. On top of that, once the Roman Empire fell, the knowledge was lost, and concrete was basically rediscovered much later on.

However, that doesn’t mean that Roman concrete is the same as modern concrete. Modern concrete is actually ten times the strength of Roman concrete, however, the concrete they had back in the day was still an incredible achievement, and not just because they were able to build it at all. Because they had their own unique kind of concrete, it may have been weaker, but it had advantages ours does not. Due to being made with volcanic ash, it actually performs way better against erosion, especially from water, something that modern concrete does not do very well with at all. This has allowed their buildings to withstand the test of time, for generations of tourists to continue to explore and be fascinated by.

6. The Romans Drove a Birth Control Plant to Extinction

Back in the day Romans were definitely known for their love of sex, and they would not have denied their love for it at all. There was a plant called Silphium which they greatly prized, because they believed that it could act as a method of birth control. It could only be grown wild and attempts to put a quota on the harvest failed miserably, due to how ridiculously popular the plant became. It was soon worth an incredible amount of money, and before too many years, the Romans had managed to lust their way to the extinction of the entire plant.

However, some people today wonder if it really worked. The problem is that there is really no way to be actually sure. The plant has gone extinct so we cannot really check samples, and there were plenty of dubious medical cures in Ancient Rome, so this could have been one of them. On the other hand, some experts believe it could have had abortion inducing affects, which means all the men taking it would have been wasting their time and the plant. However, the truth is that whether it worked or not is hardly important. The truth is that just thinking it had that effect was enough – the Romans loved consequence free sex so they drove the plant to extinction.

 5. Some Believe the Antichrist Referred to was Nero

The idea of an antichrist figure who becomes a ruler on earth, and helps set up the final battle between good and evil, that culminates in the second coming of Christ, has been fascinating people for a very long time. Many people will claim that the latest world leader they don’t like is the antichrist, and many people have been suggested to be this figure over the years. For some, the antichrist is always yet to come, but for others, he may have already been. Many scholars believe it is quite possible that the passages referring to the figure we now call the antichrist were actually talking about the Emperor Nero.

This man blamed the Christians for the fire of Rome, and persecuted them greatly. He killed his own mother and was known for being one of the most despicable tyrants in the history of Rome. However, even more telling, is the fact that when he died, many people believed he had just disappeared. Many believed he was actually going to be resurrected or return somehow, and bring more great evil to the world. And if you look at the encoded numbers that everyone always points to as the mark of the beast, the numbers can represent Nero’s name if you interpret them a certain way. Of course, this interpretation may not have been accurate either, but the fact the Christians thought he might resurrect at all shows how much they feared this man.

4. The Romans Flooded the Colosseum in Order to Conduct Mock Sea Battles

The Romans were a culture that liked to do things on a very grand scale, and they certainly kept true to this when they reenacted battles. Specifically, they decided that they wanted to reenact large scale naval battles, so they would dig out huge trenches in the ground, make artificial lakes, and then fill them with soldiers and rowers carrying out the various parts of the battle. In order to make it realistic as possible, prisoners and captured soldiers would literally be forced to fight to the death as part of the mock battles. These forms of entertainment were very popular, but due to the incredible expense they were only done on special occasions.

Many people were not sure at first if the coliseum was used for these spectacles, as it was hard to find physical evidence and it seemed like the structure would not support it. However, it turns out that the coliseum could have supported being flooded for such a purpose; they just would have had to use much smaller scale ships and such. And while there is little physical evidence, there are plenty of written sources that point to the coliseum being used at least a few times for this purpose. The Romans were always about going as big and all out as possible, and their theater was some of the most advanced and realistic you would find anywhere. Today, we stick with pretending to kill people when putting on a show.

3. The Very Strange Lives of Ancient Rome’s Vestal Virgins

The Romans were very religious and very superstitious and had many different gods. One of the more important gods was called Vesta, a great goddess of fire. They believed that as long as her fire was kept burning, Rome as a civilization would endure for the ages. To this extent, they decided they needed well trained and well-disciplined people to keep the fire burning always, to make sure Rome remained. For some reason, they decided that the best way to accomplish this would be to appoint six young girls at a time, who would remain virgins as long as they remained in their position.

It was a coveted position that gave them status most women would never get, but it did come with the price of having to remain virgins for as long as they were helping keep the fire lit. A vestal virgin who briefly let the fire go out was punished severely, usually taken aside, stripped and beaten in order to instill in them how important it is to attend to their sacred duty. And if a vestal virgin became a virgin no longer, it was considered an act of incest, because they were married to the city, and the cities citizens were related to the city in some form. This logic may not sound particularly sound, but to the Romans, it was very important that these women remained virgins. When they committed the crime of being a virgin no longer, certain rules forbade the normal means of execution for these women, so vestal no longer virgins were buried alive as punishment.

2. Urine Was Used as a Cleaning Product for Both Teeth and Clothes

As we mentioned earlier, the Romans were known for being hygienic, but they also did a lot of things that we might find rather questionable. And one of the most questionable things would likely be the way they made use of urine. Now, urine is mostly ammonia so it can be used in cleaning products, and ammonia does have cleaning properties, but the difference is that today we are essentially processing it to only keep the stuff we need.

Back in the day, Romans would use urine in order to whiten their teeth, and also in order to clean clothes. Urine would be collected throughout the day, and then diluted with water somewhat, and poured over clothes, where the launderer would then stomp on them to sort of simulate the workings of how a washing machine works now. While it may have indeed been useful at getting out the stains, we don’t really want to imagine what their clothes would have smelled like, since they soaked them in unprocessed urine in order to get them clean. However, likely the Romans would have been used to the smell, or perhaps would have used various oils or other perfumes to hide it. As we mentioned earlier, they also didn’t clean in the traditional sense to begin with and instead oiled themselves and then scraped off the excess.

1. There is Little Evidence That Romans Threw Up on Purpose So They Could Eat More Food

One of the most commonly believed myths is that Romans had a special room in which they threw up food so they could then go eat more food. This has been greatly confused because there is a word for a “vomitorium”, but this is just the exit of a coliseum, where it “vomits out” all the people back onto the street. This “fact” has made its way into books like the Hunger Games series, where the people of the capital are seen as being similar to the Romans in this respect. When most people learn that this isn’t actually true, many insist that the Romans at least still threw up on purpose to eat more.

 However, there is really little evidence of such actually happening. Romans did sometimes throw up on purpose, just as some people do today. But it is likely there were other reasons for it, just as there are today. There is really little reason to believe that Romans were actually throwing up just to make room for more food right there on the spot, and then stuffing down more, just to throw up again. This widespread belief, which is a great exaggeration, likely has made its way around due to the fact that Romans were known for elaborate feasts and hedonism in general, making it very easy to believe. The truth is, what people are talking about likely wouldn’t work that well anyway. Most people don’t feel like eating after being full, and don’t really want to make room for more, and most people certainly don’t feel like eating after recently throwing up.

Roman Almanac

– WABAC Into History