Constance Caraway P.I. ~ Episode 204

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Constance Caraway P.I. ~ Episode 204

…I don’t suppose Ace is a single man???

Scroll-Spells

This adventure has a Harry Potter feel to it

“This parchment is so pristine, so refined, that it is almost beyond human means to produce it.”

Sarah the librarian is exhausted by the sheer depth of this experience.

“We appreciate your expertise, Miss Sauer,” Constance retrieves the scroll from her hot little hands and begs their departure.

“Keep it sealed tightly and out of direct sunlight. I don’t know where you are going with this, but you must be on a mission of some sort.”

“You could say that. We are part of a battle right now,” stating the simple truth. “If you’re interested, and you seem to be, keep your eye on the Billy Graham Crusade, he is touring the Midwest and may be coming this way.”

She hands the librarian a CCPI business card, “If you flash this around, it will open some doors, seeing that we have more than a few friends involved in behind the scenes stuff, in fact, we are going to meet up with the Crusade to deliver this,” she raises the scroll, “to Mr. Graham himself. May we use your telephone, my dear?” she motions at Ace to call the Graham Telephone Switchboard. “Find out where they are and where they’re headed.”

“You’ve got it CC!” he responds mockingly-joyfully. The exact status of their relationship is not in plain sight.

While Ace is on the other side of the long front desk, Miss Sauer mentions, “He sure is dashing, in an Errol Flynn sort of way. Is he in the movies?”

“He is dashing, is he not? He flies airplanes, is an explosives expert, drives an Alpha Romeo convertible and has stared down the devil in person.”

“I don’t suppose he is a single man?”

“He is, but given the chance, there is more than one woman who would fight you over his hand (inferred: including me).”


Constance Caraway P.I.

Forever Mastadon


page 172

The Night Before Christmas – WIF Holidays

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Christmas Eve

Christmas Eve

Julaftonen by Carl Larsson 1904 edit.jpg

Julaftonen (Christmas Eve), a 1904–05 watercolor painting by Carl Larsson
Also called Christmas Evening
Christmas Vigil
Day before Christmas
Night before Christmas
Observed by Christians
Many non-Christians
Type Christian, cultural
Significance Day or evening preceding the traditional birthday of Jesus
Observances Gift shopping, gift giving, goodwill greetings, Midnight Mass, other church services, meals, preparations for the arrival of Christmas gift-bringers, preparing for Christmas
Date 24 December (Western Churches and Eastern Orthodox churches that use the Revised Julian Calendar), 5 January (Armenian Apostolic Church), 6 January (Eastern Orthodox Churches that follow the Old Julian Calendar and most Oriental Orthodox Churches), 18 January (Armenian Patriarchate of Jerusalem)
Frequency Annual
Related to Christmas Day, ChristmastideNew Year’s Eve

Christmas Eve is celebrated in different ways around the world, varying by country and region. Elements common to many areas of the world include the attendance of special religious observances such as a midnight Mass or Vespers, and the giving and receiving of presents. Along with Easter, Christmastime is one of the most important periods on the Christian calendar, and is often closely connected to other holidays at this time of year, such as Advent, the Feast of the Immaculate Conception, St. Nicholas Day, St. Stephen’s Day, New Year’s, and the Feast of the Epiphany.

During World War I in 1914 and 1915 there was an unofficial Christmas truce, particularly between British and German troops. The truce began on Christmas Eve, 24 December 1914, when German troops began decorating the area around their trenches in the region of Ypres, Belgium, for Christmas. They began by placing candles on trees, then continued the celebration by singing Christmas carols, most notably Stille Nacht (“Silent Night”). The British troops in the trenches across from them responded by singing English carols. The two sides shouted Christmas greetings to each other. Soon there were calls for visits across the “No man’s land” when small gifts were exchanged. The truce also allowed a breathing space during which recently killed soldiers could be brought back behind their lines by burial parties. Funerals took place as soldiers from both sides mourned the dead together and paid their respects. At one funeral in No Man’s Land, soldiers from both sides gathered and read a passage from Psalm 23. The truce occurred in spite of opposition at higher levels of the military command. Earlier in the autumn, a call by Pope Benedict XV for an official truce between the warring governments had been ignored.


The Night Before Christmas –

WIF Holidays

Undoing Thanksgiving – WIF Holidays

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The Undoing

of

Thanksgiving

… Somewhere ^UP^ There God watches as the United States of America is slowly but surely becoming alarmingly unthankful…

Not long after the Halloween pumpkin candles are extinguished and our children guard their sweet-stash with their lives, the Christmas holiday emerges earlier and earlier each year. Like a premature snowball rolling downhill, “here comes Santa Claus, here comes Santa Claus, right down [fill in the blank] lane”.

Never mind that December 25th is a annual holiday intended to celebrate the birth of Jesus Christ. In this case, Santa Claus and his reindeer run over both Grandma and the Son of God.

Another victim of the Christmas season is the foundational act of gratitude, or the purpose of this article, Thanksgiving.

 Drive – Macy’s Parade – Football – Turkey – Mall Shopping – Nap

You can shuffle the order of the above verbs/nouns/activities to suit your own situation.

Feel free to add your own.

Granted… Thanksgiving is still universally celebrated, but more in the line of an excuse for a long weekend and mini-family reunions. My real beef is with the lack of thank you(s) for the provider of our bountiful lives. Thanksgiving was never intended to be a speed-bump  on the way to Christmas; a door-busting deal-of-the-day credit card assault on the closest mall.

But it is.

[To the faithful reader of Writing Is Fun-damental: feel free to include some of what the 1st Pilgrims to America celebrated after the fall harvest… before the coming winter… a huge thank you to a God who provides and protects.]

This is the closest thing that I could pirate from Google Images.

WIF is a globally consumed blog, so this scolding is aimed squarely at The United States of America. For my peeps in Germany, Japan, India Uganda, Australia and the United Kingdom… you know who you are… don’t take offense to this chastisement.

Americans are an arrogant sort, me included. We think the world revolves around us.

Heck, about .002% of us citizen-Americans even bother to be bilingual. It’s the King’s English, or some form of it, or nothing.

If I were better at creating GIF graphics, here is where I would share a picture of the USA w/all the other continents circling it.

I, Gwendolyn Hoff, is hereby thankful to God; for the right to live freely, the skill to put words to “paper”… and the Internet, which connects me to you wonderful people… otherwise impossible for a little known writer from Wisconsin USA, living in NE Illinois.

A little historical refresher from Wikipedia:

Prayers of thanks and special thanksgiving ceremonies are common among almost all religions after harvests and at other times. The Thanksgiving holiday’s history in North America is rooted in English traditions dating from the Protestant Reformation. It also has aspects of a harvest festival, even though the harvest in New England occurs well before the late-November date on which the modern Thanksgiving holiday is celebrated.

In the English tradition, days of thanksgiving and special thanksgiving religious services became important during the English Reformation in the reign of Henry VIII and in reaction to the large number of religious holidays on the Catholic calendar. Before 1536 there were 95 Church holidays, plus 52 Sundays, when people were required to attend church and forego work and sometimes pay for expensive celebrations. The 1536 reforms reduced the number of Church holidays to 27, but some Puritans wished to completely eliminate all Church holidays, including Christmas and Easter. The holidays were to be replaced by specially called Days of Fasting or Days of Thanksgiving, in response to events that the Puritans viewed as acts of special providence.

Pilgrims and Puritans who emigrated from England in the 1620s and 1630s carried the tradition of Days of Fasting and Days of Thanksgiving with them to New England. The modern Thanksgiving holiday tradition is traced to a well-recorded 1619 event in Virginia and a sparsely documented 1621 celebration at Plymouth in present-day Massachusetts.  “That the day of our ships arrival at the place assigned … in the land of Virginia shall be yearly and perpetually kept holy as a day of thanksgiving to Almighty God.” The 1621 Plymouth feast and thanksgiving was prompted by a good harvest.[7][8]

Several days of Thanksgiving were held in early New England history that have been identified as the “First Thanksgiving”, including Pilgrim holidays in Plymouth in 1621 and 1623, and a Puritan holiday in Boston in 1631. According to historian Jeremy Bangs, director of the Leiden American Pilgrim Museum, the Pilgrims may have been influenced by watching the annual services of Thanksgiving for the relief of the siege of Leiden in 1574, while they were staying in Leiden. Now called Oktober Feesten, Leiden’s autumn thanksgiving celebration in 1617 was the occasion for sectarian disturbance that appears to have accelerated the pilgrims’ plans to emigrate to America. Later in Massachusetts, religious thanksgiving services were declared by civil leaders such as Governor Bradford, who planned the colony’s thanksgiving celebration and fast in 1623. The practice of holding an annual harvest festival did not become a regular affair in New England until the late 1660s.

Various proclamations were made by royal governors, John Hancock, General George Washington, and the Continental Congress, each giving thanks to God for events favorable to their causes. As President of the United States, George Washington proclaimed the first nationwide thanksgiving celebration in America marking November 26, 1789, “as a day of public thanksgiving and prayer, to be observed by acknowledging with grateful hearts the many and signal favours of Almighty God”.

My opening calendar graphic is a loose visual of what we celebrate/commemorate after July 4th.

Below is a less serious take on the holiday I will forever be thankful for.

Happy Thanksgiving!!

I am thankful for a God who loves us.

I am thankful I’m not a vegetarian.

My Granddaughter Norah is thankful that Mommy doesn’t humiliate her like this.

I did not have this nightmare

I’m the one on the left (NOW I’m dreaming)

“You know you’re a Redneck when you order out KFC.”

“Where did that turkey go?”

My dog Molly would not pose for this


Undoing God from Thanksgiving –

WIF Holidays

Crazy But True – WIF Conspiracies

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Crazy Conspiracies

That Turned Out

to be True

Conspiracy theories will always fire up the imaginations of even the most reasonable of us. It’s fascinating to imagine a bunch of people in a dark room, controlling actions from their chairs and encouraging events that change the course of the world, with no one truly being the wiser. Now, most conspiracy theories are flimsy nonsense that are obviously full of holes and not true at all. However, some conspiracy theories have more truth than most people would ever imagine. In some situations, there really was a group of people in a dark room conspiring to massively pull the wool over the eyes of others, in order to change the course of the world.

10. The US Government Once Planned A False Flag Operation Against Their Own People

When most people hear about the 9/11 conspiracy theories, they have very similar reactions. Most people believe that the amount of complexity and manpower required to pull off such an operation would have meant that we would have had far too many people snitching about what happened for the conspirators to ever get away with it. People also seem skeptical that the government would ever even consider something so horrific. However, while it seems like something out of a dark fantasy, the truth is that the United States government has, at the highest levels, planned similar operations in the past.

During the Kennedy years, the United States greatest threat were the Cubans led by Fidel Castro, and some in the government were looking for an excuse to start an actual ground war with the Cubans — something they wanted to get public support for both at home and around the world. It was to achieve this goal that the joint chiefs of staff at the time came up with a plan, and proposed it to JFK, to attack United States citizens and property (while pretending to be Cubans) as part of a false flag effort to gain support for a war. Kennedy was very angry and told them it was a terrible, immoral idea and that they were to shelve it and never bring it up again. However, while Kennedy did not want to play ball, that doesn’t mean there weren’t ever any presidents who would consider taking part in a similar plot.

9. President Woodrow Wilson’s Wife Ran The Presidency For Over A Year

During Woodrow Wilson’s presidency, he was considered a very hard working executive, whether you liked the man and his politics or not. He was regularly traveling the world in his attempts to get the United States involved in worldwide political alliances, and also engaged in speaking tours across the country. Unfortunately, his habits of hard work eventually caught up with him and nearing the end of his presidency, he suffered from a stroke. Many people at the time wondered if something was wrong, and if there might be a conspiracy to keep the extent of the president’s troubles from the public.

In fact, the government tried so hard to cover it up that his stroke and general ill health was not known for months. Even after that the true damage was never really spoken about to the press and not known for years later. Many people suspected that his health was indeed worse than the government was letting on, and that his wife was actually making most of the decisions — basically being the first woman president, in a way. While Edith claimed that she was nothing but a steward, historians who studied the time period in later years are certain that she practically was the chief executive of our country for well over a year. For those who still doubt her influence, keep in mind that while Edith Wilson was running the show, women finally gained the right to vote.

8. HAARP Is Not A Weather Control Device, But Massive Weather Control Has Been Attempted

Many people like to go on about HAARP, a government science project that many people were convinced had a lot more going on than actually met the eye. The government claimed it was simply testing radio waves and their effects on the ionosphere and other mundane things that aren’t really that interesting. Of course, conspiracy theorists were certain that something boring couldn’t actually be boring; it had to be hiding something actually interesting.

Of course, all evidence points to the government telling the truth in this case, and HAARP being nothing more than a rather mundane research project that was shut down when the research had run its course. However, that doesn’t mean weather control attempts have never been made, or that the governments of the world aren’t trying to understand the science behind it better. We know that during the Vietnam war, the United States government tried to seed the clouds around South Vietnam with various substances in the hopes it would increase rainfall and make the war effort harder for their enemies. It certainly doesn’t stretch the imagination that technology of that sort has improved over time, if the government has decided to continue researching it.

7. The United States Government Has Experimentally Poisoned US Cities Multiple Times

Many people will claim that the government is secretly poisoning you in one way or another, whether through chemtrails, fluoride, or some other insidious means. Now, evidence has shown that most of these theories are total hogwash; however, that doesn’t mean the United States government has never poisoned its own people. According to records that were released years after the fact, from the 1950s through the early 1970s, the United States government conducted nearly 300 bacterial weapon attacks on various US cities in order to understand the results.

One of the most famous of these was in San Francisco, where the government wanted to see if the fog would help spread a biological attack, and if an enemy could stage such an attack from the sea. They used hoses to release the bacteria, and according to their own data, it reached essentially everyone in the city and effectively spread out enough that if it were a harmful bacteria, the damage could be horrific. While the United States government used bacteria that they thought were mostly harmless, multiple people were proven to be hospitalized because of the attack, and at least one person died because of it. The United States secret experiments were deeply against the Nuremberg codes they had just recently agreed to, which makes the entire thing all the more irresponsible and immoral.

6. There Is Some Small Truth To The Beliefs People Have In Government Spraying Chemtrails

One of the most oft recurring conspiracy theories is the claim that the government (or governments) are spraying chemicals in the upper atmosphere in order to do all kinds of terrible things. Some people claim that the chemicals are to slowly make people stupider, while other people claim the earth has an overpopulation problem, and world governments are releasing anti-fertility drugs into the upper atmosphere. Of course, there is no evidence for any of this, and scientists and other engineers in the know will tell you that the trails you see from planes are not out of the ordinary. Even if planes were secretly releasing chemicals, it would be impossible to sample properly to prove it.

However, while there is no concerted effort to poison the atmosphere, and no known plan to ruin peoples’ fertility or anything of the sort, the fact is that governments of the world have strongly considered and researched geo-engineering solutions to our current climate change problem, and if they thought they had a workable idea, they would almost certainly attempt it — and they may or may not immediately tell the public about such an attempt. Even back in the days of Lyndon Johnson, scientists have been proposing dealing with climate problems with massive geo-engineering, either with satellites in orbit, particles laced in our upper atmosphere — which sounds similar to chemtrail theories — or any number of other crazy solutions. Of course, while we know governments have attempted at least somewhat massive geo-engineering in terms of making it rain, there is no hard evidence that massive attempts to push back environmental damage are at anything more than the research stage as of now.

5. The Assassination Of Abraham Lincoln Was Not Just One Crazy Actor Acting Alone

Now, folks at the time of Lincoln’s assassination may or may not have immediately known or guessed that many different people were involved, however, most people today tend to not be aware of the scale of the plot. Many people today believe that the assassination of a president like JFK could not have been pulled off by one lone wolf, but don’t give much thought to the common belief held by most people that John Wilkes Booth acted alone when killing President Lincoln.

The truth is, though, assassinating a president is very hard work and Booth had a lot of help. There were several co-conspirators involved and they all had a role to play. If they had succeeded, they could have sowed horrific chaos in the highest levels of the United States government. The thing was, it was a much bigger conspiracy than most people know, and included most of his important cabinet members. One man was supposed to kill Vice President Johnson, but lost his nerve, and another man attempted to kill the Secretary of War, William Seward, but failed in his attempt. Booth also would likely not have managed to escape without help, as he had co-conspirators helping him along to freedom as well, after he murdered the president.

4. During Vietnam The US Government Fabricated An Attack To Gain Support For War

Many people consider the idea of the government actually lying to get us into war as unthinkable, and some are still convinced that the Bush administration was only mistaken when it came to Iraq, WMDs, and that country’s involvement in 9/11. People simply don’t like to believe that their government would lie to them just so they could start a violent conflict in another part of the world, or amp up one that was already ongoing. However, back during the days of the Vietnam War, that is exactly what happened.

There was an incident with a US ship called the Maddox, which supposedly reported a torpedo attack from the Vietnamese, which led to further involvement by the US in Vietnam. The truth, however, is that the entire thing was a total fabrication, designed from beginning to end in order to get us further into the war. The Johnson administration actually sent the Maddox to perform covert attacks for the express purpose of egging the enemy on to attack them, so they could get more support for war. On top of that, the torpedo was a false signal and the Maddox quickly told the higher ups it was a false alarm, but the top brass still used it as an excuse for more war funding.

3. The US Government Deliberately Poisoned Alcohol During Prohibition To Discourage Use

Prohibition was one of the strangest eras in the history of the United States. People who were convinced drinking was the worst thing ever pushed super hard to ruin everyone’s fun, and they succeeded for a time, but not before doing untold damage because they couldn’t mind their own business. The ban on one of the most popular things to ever exist in the history of the world backfired rather spectacularly, giving rise to all new organized crime groups, some of which took decades to break up to the state they are today. For a long time, the black market on drugs was very organized.

Of course, the government wasn’t happy with people not only openly flouting the law whenever possible, but also empowering criminal enterprises. So, the United States government went to great length to poison a bunch of alcohol that they knew would be making its way onto the black market, in order to make people less likely to drink it. This program adulterated the alcohol, making it unfit to drink and causing people to get sick, and some to even go blind. It would be many years after before the government admitted to their role in sickening people who dared drink some booze while it was illegal. While it sounds like an absurd conspiracy out of a very bad movie, it was a reality during prohibition and added countless deaths and hospital visits to those already caused by alcohol that was accidentally poisonous.

2. Joseph McCarthy’s Methods Were Wrong, But He Was More Right Than People Realize

Joseph McCarthy is considered to be one of the most wrong people who was ever wrong in politics, according to most of America. He is (in)famous for constantly and consistently decrying an incredible amount of people as Russian spies, and angrily grilling them in front of the senate. His paranoia about Russian agents was legendary, and his scorched earth tactics earned him the ire of the nation, and the senate, who eventually decided to censure him in 1954.

However, while McCarthy’s methods were almost certainly over the top, and put a lot of innocent people unnecessarily through the ringer, the truth was that his paranoia may have been more justified than many people realize. Historical proof shows that the administrations of Truman and FDR were full of Russian spies, that the communist party in America was funded by Moscow, and there were indeed several high profile Russian agents that were caught around that time period, including Julius and Ethel Rosenberg. McCarthy may have gone about things almost entirely wrong, but his fears were not entirely without justification.

1. The MLB May Have Changed The Baseballs For The 2017 World Series

Baseball has always had a bit of a problem when it comes to exciting crowds, and also tends to have a bit of a trust problem with its fans. For baseball nuts, it’s really exciting to see a pitcher pitch a perfect game, for example, but the sport is boring for a general audience. This means that if the MLB wants more people to tune into games, they need to make sure that more home runs happen, because it excites people’s passions and keeps their butts in the seats. When the steroid scandal first broke, it turned out the rabbit hole went far deeper than anyone thought, and it turned out that the MLB knew more than they were letting on and were trying to cover things up, because viewership was up.

More recently, things have become rather suspicious once again. The steroid era was starting to end and pitchers were getting control again — this meant not as much excitement, so something had to be done. The 2017 World Series set a record for having the most home runs in any World Series ever played, and players from both teams are 100% convinced that the balls used were significantly different. Both teams claimed that the balls were noticeably slicker, and this meant pitchers found it much harder to achieve proper control, which means more home runs. While the MLB officially denied it, they officially denied knowledge of the steroid issue as well, and with both teams agreeing there was a major difference, it’s hard to believe the MLB’s denials in this situation.


Crazy But True –

WIF Conspiracies

4th of July in History

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 Events That

Occurred On

The 4th Of July

For Americans, the 4th of July is one of the most significant dates in history. Yet, what many may not know is that a host of other historically significant events also occurred on this particular day. Here are ten of the most important for world history, arranged chronologically.

10. The Battle of Mantinea (362 BC)

Battle-of-Mantinea

In a battle of Greek city-states, the Thebans, led by Epaminondas, actually managed to defeat the famed Spartans. Epaminondas won the battle while fighting in the front line, resulting in him sustaining a fatal wound. To make matters worse for the “victors,” the two Theban leaders whom he intended to succeed him perished. A dying Epaminondas thus instructed the Thebans to make peace, despite having won the battle. As a consequence, Theban hopes for hegemony faded, while the Spartans were unable to replace their losses. Because both sides had lost their most capable leaders at Mantinea and its aftermath, the battle paved the way for the Macedonian rise as the leading force in Greece. An ascendant Macedon went on to unite most of Greece, in a campaign under Alexander the Great that conquered most of the Persian Empire, including Egypt.

9. A Major Turning Point In The Crusades (1187)

Saladin

During the Crusades at the Battle of Hattin, Saladin defeated and captured Guy of Lusignan, King of Jerusalem. French knight Raynald of Châtillon died in the aftermath, personally beheaded by Saladin. The Muslim victory set the stage for their march on Jerusalem, which they besieged successfully a few months later in the Autumn of 1187. These two victories destroyed the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem, and thereby directly resulted in the coming Third Crusade, a major event in world history in which the Holy Roman Emperor joined with the kings of England and France to attempt to retake Jerusalem. They failed and as such, Saladin’s destruction of the Crusader army at Hattin, capture of Jerusalem’s king, and conquest of Jerusalem itself had long-lasting consequences for Middle Eastern history. If somehow Guy would have triumphed instead and prevented Saladin from moving on Jerusalem, the history of the Crusades and, therefore, of Christian and Muslim relations could have been quite different.

8. THE 4th of July (1776)

declaration-of-independence

During the American Revolution, The United States Declaration of Independence was adopted by the Second Continental Congress. Yet, American independence was not immediately recognized by the British. So, in 1778, American forces under George Clark captured Kaskaskia during the Illinois campaign, one of many victories that would eventually encourage the British to acknowledge America’s independence. The result meant that the United States Declaration of Independence would go down as one of the most important documents of American times. At least two dozen countries around the world drew upon this document when drafting their own declarations of independence, in the nineteenth through twentieth centuries. Moreover, that it inspired Americans to successful liberate themselves from British rule was not only a hallmark in notions of human rights, but also in ideas of democracy. Consider the number of absolutist governments in the centuries before 1776 versus the increasing number of constitutional governments in the years afterwards. America’s success inspired many other countries’ elder statesmen, whose words regarding freedom bear obvious resemblance to that established by Adams, Jefferson, and Monroe.

7. The Deaths of America’s Founders (1826 and 1831)

july-4-dead-presidents

Thomas Jefferson, third President of the United States, died the same day in 1826 as John Adams, second president of the United States, on the 50th anniversary of the adoption of the Declaration of Independence. Just a few years later, fellow founding father, and fifth President of the United States, James Monroe passed away on July 4th, 1831. That three of the first five American presidents died on the 4th of July is not only obviously symbolic, it also reflects something of the end of an era for the first leaders of one of history’s most powerful countries. Their passing was not just the deaths of well-known American politicians, but giants of Western civilization whose legacy still appears visually in numerous monuments, films, and even on currency


6. Alice First Entered Wonderland (1862)

alice-in-wonderland

On July 4th, 1862, Lewis Carroll told Alice Liddell a story that would grow into Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland and its sequels. Wonderland was subsequently published on July 4th, 1865. The number of adaptations of the book and its sequel, in films, television, and video games is enormous. Allusions to Carroll’s stories in popular culture are incredibly pervasive, especially throughout the Anglophone world, but also in non-English speaking cultures as well. Stories about Alice rival the Oz books and the writings of Jules Verne as far as being regularly adapted in various media over the years is concerned.

5. The Turning Points Of the American Civil War Concluded (1863)

ulysses-s-grant

During the American Civil War, Vicksburg, Mississippi was surrendered to Ulysses S. Grant after 47 days of siege, while 150 miles up the Mississippi River, a Confederate Army was repulsed at the Battle of Helena in Arkansas. On the same day, The Army of Northern Virginia withdrew from the battlefield after its loss at the Battle of Gettysburg, signaling an end to the Southern invasion of the North. These three defeats represented the turning point of the American Civil War. They prevented any remaining chance that a European power might intervene militarily on the South’s behalf. They also demonstrated decisively that the South could not successfully invade the North. For the remainder of the war, the South was now entirely on the defensive and, although she held out for two more years, they were two disastrous years that resulted in the deaths of numerous Southerners.

4. The New Colossus Enlightened the World (1884)

Statue-of-Liberty-1800s

The people of France offered the Statue of Liberty Enlightening the World to the people of the United States on July 4th, 1884. The two allies participated in this symbolic act nearly a hundred years after both of their revolutions began in (1776 for America, and 1789  for France.) The erection of the sculpture symbolized the triumph of Enlightenment ideas of liberty, ideas that continue to enrapture large chunks of humanity. Moreover, the magnificence and endurance of the sculpture has led many to refer to it as a “wonder of the modern world,” and “The New Colossus.”

3. The End Of A Dynasty (1918)

tsar-nicholas-II

When Bolsheviks killed future Orthodox saints Tsar Nicholas II of Russia and his family, they effectively ended the Romanov dynasty that ruled the Russian Empires, one of the largest countries in human history after centuries of rule. The event also foreshadowed the end of other European dynasties amidst the cataclysmic First World War. Following the Russian examples, the Habsburgs of Austria, the Hohenzollerns of Germany, and the Ottomans of Turkey were also toppled by their people in rapid succession.

2. Modern Warfare Was At Its Most Massive Scale (1943)

battle-of-kursk

During World War II, the Battle of Kursk (the largest full-scale battle in history and the world’s largest tank battle) began at Prokhorovka Village on July 4th, 1943. The battle resulted in over a million casualties on both sides (Germans versus Soviets) and the loss of over 10,000 tanks, guns, and aircraft. This decisive Soviet victory crippled Germany’s offensive power in the East, in what was Germany’s final strategic offensive on that front, and thus the final realistic chance for them to turn the tide on the Eastern Front.

1. Filipino Independence Achieved (1946)

Philippines-Independence-Day

After 381 years of near-continuous colonial rule by various powers, the Philippines attained full independence from the United States. The independence of the Philippines coincided with a global trend in the years following World War II in which many African and Asian countries, previously colonized by Western powers, achieved their independence after centuries of Western domination.


4th of July

in History

Christopher Columbus Bio – WIF Confidential

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Fascinating

Facts About

Christopher Columbus

In 1492, Columbus sailed the ocean blue…

 The elementary school lyrics were the first exposure most students had to the Italian explorer. The line would prove to be some of the only truth told to students about Christopher Columbus and the nature of his explorations into the New World. Was he out to prove that the world wasn’t flat? Was he, in fact, the first man to discover the New World? And how exactly does one discover a place that has millions of inhabitants? Sit back and let the TopTenz team give you the 10 facts about Christopher Columbus that you may not know…

10. Did He Care if the Earth was Flat?

Do you remember being in elementary school and your teacher telling you that Columbus was out to prove the Earth wasn’t flat? We do. For many schools around the United States, teachers used the Flat Earth theory to engage students about the heroic expeditions of Columbus. However, the idea that Columbus was out to prove the Earth was round is just a myth.

Yes, for a period, human beings believed that the world was flat; however, ancient philosophers like Pythagoras came to understand that the world was round in the 6th century BC. You might remember Pythagoras from the Pythagorean theorem… or don’t remember him or geometry much at all. Nonetheless his work, authenticated by Aristotle centuries later, made it very clear that the world was, in fact, round.

What is true is that Columbus underestimated the circumference of the Earth, thinking that Europe was much wider than it was and that Japan was farther from the coast of Asia than it actually was. As a result, Columbus had the false belief that he could reach Asia by going West – a massive miscalculation that led to his discovery of a “New World.”

9. He Struggled Finding Funding for his Voyage

The more one learns about Christopher Columbus, the more his presence in the annals of history seems like a massive insult to the great explorers and thinkers of earlier periods. However, he was persistent. Columbus lobbied European Monarchs and was denied, lobbied, and was denied. That process continued for nearly a decade, with advisers to the Kings and Queens of Europe remarking that Columbus’s math was not just wrong, but embarrassingly wrong. However, Columbus remained steadfast in his beliefs and he was rewarded.

Finally, with the Spanish wars against the Moors coming to an end, King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella agreed to finance the voyage. Columbus would sail from Palos, Spain, with three small ships… which we know by now he commanded with misguided maps and calculations. Who could have guessed that this man would make a discovery that would reshape the world?

8. He Wrecked his Ship

The Santa María was the largest of the three ships that embarked on Columbus’s voyage to… ahem, ‘Asia’. And even then, records show that the Santa María was not a particularly large ship, comparable today to a cruising yacht. The Santa María was only about 100 tons with a single deck and three small masts. Crossing the Atlantic Ocean proved fine for Columbus and his men, but the return journey was where tragedy struck.

As children, we probably all asked our parents to hold the steering wheel. How hard could it be? We’d beg and plead and almost always be met with a resounding “No!” That wasn’t the case on the Santa Maria. On the Christmas Eve, 1492, a cabin boy took the wheel and crashed into a coral reef on the northern coast of Hispaniola, close to present day Haitien, Haiti. After two sleepless nights, Columbus had decided to sleep and the crew followed, thinking that the calm night could bring no trouble. They couldn’t have been more mistaken.

Christmas was spent salvaging the remaining cargo, leaving Columbus to return to Spain aboard the Nina. Before leaving, Columbus instructed the crew to build a settlement on the remains of the ship which, they named “La Navidad.” Nearly 40 crew members were left behind at La Navidad, the first European settlement in the New World.

In the fall of 1493, Columbus returned to the settlement and found that none of the crew were alive, describing the La Navidad settlement as being “ burned to the ground.”

7. He Returned to Spain in Shackles

Unfazed by the destruction of his former crew members’ settlement, Columbus decided to rebuild the settlement in a different location. Promising riches to crown and crew member alike, Columbus and his brothers would rule the new settlement with savage cruelty. Believing the island had  great quantities of gold, Columbus forced the native workers into slavery, exploring and mining for gold and rebuilding the settlement. Failure to comply was met with death or the chopping off of limbs.

Convinced that he had found the outer islands of China, Columbus left the encampment for Spain. On his return, he would find the settlement in disarray. Colonists had become embittered with the management of Columbus’s brothers – with some Spanish colonists even being executed at the gallows. The lack of gold and riches also led to many believing that they had been lied to. As a result, colonists complained to the monarchy and a royal commissioner dispatched to the new colony arrested Columbus and brought him back to Spain in chains.The arrest would not hamper Columbus’s explorations, as he would not only be granted his freedom, but also the finances for a fourth voyage.

6. An Eclipse was his Savior

If finding uncharted territory by accident wasn’t enough for you, Columbus would be the beneficiary of even more good fortune while stranded in Jamaica.

 On his fourth and final journey, Columbus promised King Ferdinand the gold that he had so far been unable to fully deliver. In 1502, Columbus set sail, traveling along the eastern coast of Central America – again believing that he was close to find a route to the Indian Ocean. That, he would not find. What he would find was devastating winds; gusts that would wreck one of his ships. Columbus and his men became stranded on the island of Jamaica, where the men’s demands of gold would irritate the natives and lead to their refusal to feed Columbus and his men. Left with little options, Columbus consulted his almanac, realizing that an eclipse was on the horizon. He sought out the natives’ chief and warned him that his God was angry at the lack of food provided for him and his men. He told the natives that a sign would soon come that displayed his God’s anger.

On February 29, 1504, an eclipse would terrify the native population into providing food and trading with Columbus and his party. Months later a rescue party would arrive and Columbus and his men were taken back to Spain.

5. First to Discover New World?

It seems that our Genoese explorer has gotten more credit than he is due. Researchers have confirmed that Christopher Columbus was not the first man to lead a voyage to the Americas. That distinction goes to a Viking, by the name of Leif Erikson.

The exact date is unknown, but scholars put Erikson’s voyage around the year 1000 AD. Son of Erik the Red, Leif Erikson sailed to what is now the Canadian province of Newfoundland, but didn’t settle in the area deemed “Vinland.” After staying for a few years, Erikson and his party returned to Greenland, where he described his travels. Proof of the voyage was uncovered by Norwegian Helge Instad and Anne Stine Instad, who found an ancient Norse settlement.

Less plausible theories suppose that an Irish Monk in the 6th century was the first to discover the Americas in a wood-framed boat covered in animal skin. Another theory holds that in the 15th century, Zheng He, a fleet Admiral who had explored Southeast Asia, India, the Persian Gulf, and the East Coast of Africa had also visited the Americas 71 years before Columbus. The best piece of evidence for this claim was the discovery of an old Chinese map that displays an understanding of the world that predates European knowledge of the Americas. Since the map has been revealed, scholars have questioned its authenticity while others remain convinced that Zheng He did, in fact, explore the “New World” before Columbus. It’s not hard to imagine that in some schools in Far East Asia, it was Zhen He “who sailed the ocean blue.”

4. His Adventures After Death

Although we have questioned his mental acumen, what cannot be questioned is Columbus’s adventurousness in his pursuits and explorations. Those qualities would seem to continue into death, as the deceased bodies of Columbus and his son, Diego, were shipped across the Atlantic to Hispaniola (on the request of his daughter-in-law). They were to be interred in a Santo Domingo cathedral.

Nearly 200 years later, when the French captured the island, the Spanish dug up the bodies of both Columbus and his son and shipped them to Seville via Cuba. Upon further examination, a box with human remains and Columbus’s name was discovered at his original resting place in Santo Domingo in 1877. The finding led to the DNA testing of the remains in Seville, which confirmed that some of the remains were those of Columbus. What are we to make of the box in Santo Domingo bearing Columbus’s name, containing human remains? The Dominican Republic has refused to let their findings be tested, so it is entirely possible that parts of Columbus are spread across the Old and New World.

3. Columbus – Slave Trader

“Only a few hundred were left.” That’s all that remained of the Taino population 60 years after first contact with Columbus. Conservative estimates hold that more than 250,000 inhabited the Dominican Republic before his arrival. It’s a startling figure to consider when contemplating the impact of Columbus on the native populations of the New World.

On Columbus’s first trip, he ordered six of the natives to be seized, stating in his journal that he believed they would be good servants. Other accounts depict Columbus and his men riding on the backs of natives like they were horses. Unable to find large quantities of gold, Columbus enslaved many of the native population, brutalizing them in his quest for the riches of the island. Any form of rebellion led to massive bloodshed – with Columbus even ordering their dismembered bodies to be paraded through the streets. Ultimately, it was the disease brought on by the Spanish that killed off most of the population. However, the Taino people live on in their language: Words like “canoe, hammock,  barbeque, and hurricane” have their origins in the Arawak tribe’s tongue.

2. Columbus was Very Religious

Despite his cruel and inhumane acts, Columbus was a fervent Christian. He believed that his voyages were God’s will, and consequently he would go on to name many of the lands he “discovered” biblical names.

The voyages across the Atlantic were not without biblical influence, as Columbus made sure the crew observed religious rites. Every time they turned the half-hour glass, they exclaimed “blessed be the hour of our Savior’s birth/blessed by the Virgin Mary who bore him/and blessed by John who baptized him.” It is also alleged that despite the crude manner of ship life, Columbus never cursed.

His religious feeling were so strong that upon landing on the American mainland and seeing four rivers flowing from the landmass, he was convinced that he had encountered the Garden of Eden.

1. Columbus Brought Syphilis to the New World

Recent reports have come to suggest that Columbus had an even greater impact on world history than we’ve given him credit for. According to skeletal evidence, Columbus and his crew not only introduced the Old World to the New World, but to syphilis as well. It appears that like Vegas, what happens in the New World will stay in the New World… except for venereal disease.

The sexual nature of the syphilis epidemic made it especially contentious in finding its origins.The first known epidemic of syphilis took place in the Renaissance era (1490s). One of the most notable initial cases was its infection of the army of Charles the VIII after he invaded Naples. The disease would go on to devastate Europe, resulting in 5 million deaths.

While still just a widely held theory, scientists believe they were able to prove the disease’s origin by comparing 26 strains of treponemes from Africa, Europe, Asia, the Middle East, the Americas, and the Pacific Islands. The results were that the “strains that caused the sexually transmitted disease originated recently, with their closest relatives being germs collected in South America. In other words, it seems to have come from the New World.”


Christopher Columbus Bio

– WIF Confidential

Constance Caraway P.I. Coming Tomorrow

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What’s Next on WIF

… We are going to take a break from the Space Family McKinney {for a while} and revisit a book I posted in 2014…

CONSTANCE CARAWAY ~FOREVER MASTADON~

A private eye and her colleagues are blinded by science…and a greater power

Historical Fiction from Gwendolyn Hoff

Creation vs. Evolution, Heaven & hell collide on Earth.

CONSTANCE CARAWAY ~FOREVER MASTADON~ 75,000 words that chronicle an early case taken on by CONSTANCE CARAWAY INVESTIGATION, a Tallahassee Florida based private detective agency, consisting of the title character and her partner Fanny Renwick.

Constance and Fanny are drawn [paid] to Chicago to investigate the disappearance of Willard Libby, a University of Chicago biochemist who has been working on a breakthrough project. They are hired by an associate of Libby, who does not trust his conventional local options.

Set in 1951 Chicago, Forever Mastadon (Mastodon is intentionally misspelled) is an organization that is bent on permanently quieting Libby, as it applies to radiocarbon dating. Bottom line: the devil himself is behind a conspiracy that includes textbook publishers, the United States Justice Department, a cult leader and a handful or two of 2-bit hoodlums.

As a result of good detective work and some dumb luck, the scientist is located…catatonic–at a mental hospital. But that is just the beginning; his mind will be fully restored, he is hidden away and his death wrongly reported,  all the while the antagonists behind his abduction are about to be found out.

It is not long before a supporting cast comes together to combat the unknown forces behind the “Great Deception”, the lie being that carbon dating has identified life on Earth as 100 of millions of years old. A Chicago taxi driver, a pilot friend of Constance, a Tallahassee lawyer and a CIA rogue, unite to see that Willard Libby’s truths see the spotlight of day.

While God has his angels, the Libbyites (13 people who are his advocates) get help from a young Southern preacher named Billy Graham, who incorporates the science supporting Creationism into his Crusades and finally a Revival Meeting for the ages, a finale that will either make you sit up in your chair or stand up and cheer.

I have branded my own style of Historical Fiction, which I first brought to the world with my book, THE LIFE AND TIMES OF A BLACK SOUTHERN DOCTOR (1896-1959),(ISBN13 978-1-4691-9018). Constance Caraway and her friends give me the wings to bring history to life, with this riveting story.

I have been updating the format [to match my recent books], as well as creating the graphics.


Constance Caraway P.I.

Coming Tomorrow