Constance Caraway P.I. ~ Episode 24

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Constance Caraway P.I. ~ Episode 24

…“This place is a mess, Martin, how does this guy know where anything is…

Scott Brown Art

Constance – Martin – Fanny

“This whole case is leaving an international aftertaste in my mouth.” Constance is concerned.

“Okay already, I get your point. It’s not like I’m going to plagiarize his work. I will break into his office, without a key or permission and we’ll see what we can find. It’s at the end of the hall.”

One, two, three they hustle down the polished granite floors of the Humanities Building, prepared to find a way to the other side of the door labeled:

“Stand back!” Tailing behind, the slightly built Martin Kamen prepares to bust down the door in a rush.

“Martin, you don’t need to…”

But he does anyway, putting every ounce of his 160 pounds, but the black oaken door swings in to the left without resistance. Kamen finds himself face down on the floor.

“… do that!” giggles Fanny. “Constance picked the lock,”

“Apparently.” He dusts himself off, having bruised his ego, not his body.

“This place is a mess, Martin. How does this guy know where anything is?”

“Willard is a neat freak. I would say that someone has been looking for something. I was here on the 18th and it was as neat as a pin.” Martin had been in here many times, but he had never used a discerning eye when looking about.

“Let me guess, there won’t be any record of who had the opportunity to do this?” Constance surmises that universities are trusting by nature, “That would be too easy.”

“We have an excellent campus police force, I’ll have them come and check this out.”

“What am I, Swiss cheese? I’ll take it from here and I’ll let you know when you can call in those cardboard cutouts for cops.” She is not impressed with any of the security she has seen, whether here or at that supposedly “top secret” national lab out in nowheresville. “Fanny, I see that you are dusting for prints, keep your eyes peeled for any mistakes made by the creeps who did this.”


Constance Caraway P.I.

Forever Mastadon


page 23

 

“We The People of the Superior States of North America”

1 Comment

 “We The People

of the Superior States

of North America”

“Hereby secede from The United States of America.”

Superior States of North America

Solemn Declaration:

Let it not be said that disaffected citizens of an existing nation cannot band together, in their like-mindedness, and create a land that is established with the blessing of God, to live together without beholding to a government which insists on ignoring the majority in favor of a raucous and gaudy minority.

  • We do not enter into this union lightly or without regard to its obligation to the greater community of the planet Earth.
  • We stand on the Word of God and adhere to its Superior guidance.
  • We are people of good moral standing, who treat all as equal under the sun and expect the best from ourselves.
  • We take complete and total responsibility for our actions, whether as individuals or together.
  • We shall defend our borders with fervor, respectful of our neighbors (Canada) to the North and (United States of America) to the South.

We the citizens of Superior States of North America hereby reject:

  • The blatant ignorance of the Constitution of the United States of America on which the country was established, but has been trampled upon by those currently in power.
  • The aggressive suppression of religious freedom as previously contracted by the Founding Fathers.
  • The inability to enforce the laws of the land as set forth by previous members of the United States’ Congresses.
  • The notion that “political correctness” takes precedence over common sense.
  • The Tax Code has become the personal toy of the Economic Elite, thereby creating an unsatisfactory disparity among the very rich and the very poor.

Within the Superior States of North America:

  • Sound moral code will rule the day
  • Compassion  will rule the day
  • Common Sense will rule the day
  • From each according to his ability, to each according to his need
  • The One True God will rule His people

*DISCLAIMER*

“I was temporarily insane and disillusioned at the time.”

This is a postulate set forth by the goals & aspirations of Gwendolyn Hoff and her alone, with the hope of inspiring like-minded people to action. She is not a card-carrying member of the Tea Party and does not endorse continued participation as citizens of the United States of America.

The map as shown is subject to the approval by referendum by the entire individual states of Wisconsin, Minnesota, Iowa, North & South Dakota, Idaho and Montana. It is also subject to the approval by referendum of counties bordering the following states, Michigan, Illinois and Wyoming.

“If you believe in this cause, get a hold of me & we will talk.”

Gwenny

Gwenny


We The People of the Superior States

of North America


 

Benchmark Companies – WIF Business

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WIF History-001

10 Oldest Businesses

Still in Operation Today

Starting a business is hard enough, but making one thrive and survive, even for a short time, is sometimes nothing less than a miracle. Amazingly, the businesses on this list managed to overcome the odds; many of them have survived for centuries, and all of them are, quite astonishingly, still operating.

Note: These are not the 10 oldest businesses overall, but the oldest companies still in operation in 10 different types of businesses.

10. Video Game Company

nintendo cards

Nintendo – Japan
Est: 1889

You’re probably thinking that this entry is a mistake, because there is no waythat Nintendo was making video games over 125 years ago…which is completely true. The roots of video games started to form in the 1950s. But what’s interesting about the Nintendo Company is that it was founded on September 23, 1889, by Japanese entrepreneur Fusajiro Yamauchi. The first products that the “Nintendo Koppai” made were hand drawn playing cards, called Hanafuda Cards, which were similar to the common 52-card decks, and could be used to play different games. In 1959, Fusajiro Yamauchi’s grandson, Hiroshi Yamauchi, was running the company and made a deal with Disney to print their characters on Nintendo cards. This increased business, and Nintendo went public in 1962.

With investor money, Nintendo took on a bunch of different projects, such as a taxi company, an instant rice company, remote controlled vacuum cleaners, toy making, and “a short stay” hotel chain, which is essentially exactly what it sounds like. Most of the ventures were failures, and Nintendo was facing other problems; the playing card business had been saturated, and they drowning in debt. Luckily for Nintendo, and millions of gamers, one of their ventures helped turned the company around: toy-making.

In 1970, Hiroshi was touring one of Nintendo’s factories and saw an engineer, Gunpei Yokoi, playing with an extending arm that he created. Hiroshi decided to launch the extending arm as an official product called the “Ultra Hand,” and it became a best seller. This changed Nintendo’s direction again, and they began making electronic toys, including a Love Tester.

It was during this time that video games and arcades were gaining some traction, and in 1975 Nintendo released its first video arcade game, EVR Race,which was followed by one of the biggest video games of all time, Donkey Kong. In 1983, they released their own platform, called the Famicom (short for Family Computer) in Japan. Shortly after they released Famicon, the video game market crashed. Nintendo managed to survive the crash, and in 1985 the company released the Nintendo Entertainment System in North America. The rest, as they say, is history.

9. Musical Instrument Manufacturer

zildjian

Avedis Zildjian Company – Turkey
Est. 1623

The most famous cymbal company in the world got its start in 1618 in Constantinople, which is modern day Istanbul, Turkey, when an Armenian alchemist named Avedis tried to make gold using tin, copper, and silver. What he ended up with was an alloy that didn’t break when it was struck; instead, it made a loud crashing noise. The alloy quickly became popular and was used by the Ottoman military band as a tactic to frighten the enemy.

In 1623, Sultan Osman II gave Avedis the family name “Zildjian,” which means “son of cymbal maker.” The family continued to make cymbals in Constantinople until 1929, when Avedis III moved the company to Massachusetts, where it is still in operation today. Currently, the company is run by the 14th generation of the family and they remain the dominant cymbal maker in the world, having 65 percent of the market.

One of the big reasons for Zildjian’s success is the secret alloy formula that was developed by Avedis. Only a handful of people throughout its 400 year history have known what mixture of elements makes Zildjian’s unique sound.

8. Pharmacy

pharmacy

Santa Maria Novella – Italy
Est. 1612

The Santa Maria Novella in Florence, Italy, is the oldest known pharmacy in the world. It started off life as a Dominican monastery in 1221. The friars grew medicinal herbs (quit snickering, you bunch of stoners) in their gardens, and it was used to treat patients in their infirmary. The friars, who had taken a vow of poverty, didn’t open it up to the public until 400 years later in 1612, after word had spread about their balms, ointments, and washes.

Today, the pharmacy still sells many of the concoctions and remedies that it has brewed and sold throughout its 400 year (plus) history, along with modern skin care products and ointments.

7. Amusement Park

Bakken – Denmark
Est. 1583

Bakken, the oldest amusement park that is still in operation, first opened to the public in 1583 in Klampenborg, which is just north of Copenhagen, Denmark. Of course, what people find amusing has changed over the years, and 430 years ago they didn’t exactly have the rides that we are familiar with today. Instead, the park consisted of pleasure gardens. In the gardens, there would be dancing, fireworks, and even some primitive rides.

At the time, plenty of cities throughout Europe had similar amusement parks, but many closed in the 1700s. Bakken carried on and evolved throughout the centuries. In 1923, they constructed a wooden roller coaster, and they continued to add modern rides in the following years. The park is still in operation today and admission is free.

6. Printing and Publishing House

Cambridge University Press – England
Est. 1584

London’s Cambridge University was first granted a Letters Patent, which is similar to a royal charter, by King Henry the VIII in 1534. This allowed the university to print “all manner of books.” However, due to politics and censors, the university wouldn’t publish its first book until fifty years later. Their first book was Two Treatises of the Lord His Holie Supper, and it was printed by Cambridge’s first printer, Thomas Thomas. Yes, that was his actual name. No, we can’t confirm whether or not his parents did, in fact, hate him.

Since that first book was printed just over 480 years ago, the Cambridge University Press has published a book every single year. This includes works by some of the greatest minds in human history, like John Milton, Isaac Newton, D.H. Lawrence, Noam Chomsky, and Stephen Hawking.

5. Bank

bank

Banca Monte dei Paschi di Siena – Italy
Est. 1472

The basics of banking, such as lending money, started around 2000 B.C. and it was advanced in Ancient Greece and during the time of the Roman Empire, when bankers would take deposits and exchanged money. In the Middle Ages, in what is modern day Italy, banking evolved even more. One of the banks that helped with that evolution was Banca Monte dei Paschi di Siena, which is located in Siena. Obviously. The bank was founded in 1472, when Siena was still an independent state.

After the Kingdom of Italy was established in 1861, the bank spread to become the third largest bank in Italy. They managed to survive wars between city states, two World Wars, fascism, and they even made it through the 2012 European financial crisis due to a bailout, but in early 2016 they were again inserious financial trouble.

4. Brewery

brewery

Weihenstephan – Germany
Est. 1040

A lot of beer companies brag about their long brewing traditions, but not many breweries are anywhere close to being as old as the Weihenstephanbrewery, which is just north of Munich, Germany. The brewery is located in the Weihenstephan Abbey, which was a Benedictine monastery that was established in 725 by Saint Corbinian. In 1040, Abbot Arnold got a license to brew beer and Weihenstephan officially became a brewery.

It wasn’t an easy near-millennium for the brewery. Between 1085 and 1463, the monastery faced a number of tragedies. It burned down four times, endured three plagues, multiple famines, and a massive earthquake. Yet, it survived under the friar’s control until 1803, when the monastery was dissolved because Germany secularized. However, the state kept the brewery going and the beer is still sold to this day in dozens of countries around the world.

3. Bar

bar

Sean’s Bar – Ireland
Est. 900

Before we get into this entry, we feel we should clear the air a bit. We really don’t want to stereotype here, but is anyone truly surprised that the oldest bar in the world is located in Ireland? Well, it’s true. Sean’s Bar, which is located on the west bank of the River Shannon in Athlone, is believed to have been continuously in operation since 900 , and supposedly, there is a record of every owner since it opened. Amazingly, this includes singer Boy George, who briefly owned the bar in 1987. Further proof of the bar’s age was found during a renovation in the 1970s, when workers found a piece of original wall that is made of wattle and wicker. The wall was excavated, and it’s on display in a glass case at the bar.

Sean’s Bar was originally opened as an inn by Luain over 1,110 years ago, and that is where Athlone gets its name from. In Irish, Athlone means Atha Luain, which translates to the “Ford of Luain.” Luain designed the inn with tilted floors so that when it rains, the water runs through the bar and out to the river. This tilted floor is also great for messing with visitors to the bar who have had one or three or six too many. And those visitors have included U2, star athletes, and plenty of American tourists. The boom in American tourism started in the 1980s, after Dallas stars Larry Hagman and Linda Gray became frequent visitors to the bar and expressed their love for it.

2. Restaurant

restaurant

Stiftskeller St. Peter – Austria
Est. ~806

The restaurant business is notoriously hard. On average, almost 60 percent fail within the first year. It is even more difficult to get to the five year mark. That means having one run continuously for decades is impressive, let alone centuries, but Stiftskeller St. Peter in Salzburg, Austria has been open for a mind-boggling 1,210 years.

The restaurant is part of the original building of St Peter’s Abbey, which is a Benedictine monastery. The earliest reference to the restaurant is found in the 806 writings of Alcuin, who was a follower of Charlemagne. Since then, Stiftskeller has supposedly been continuously open and many dignitaries and celebrities have visited, including Bill Clinton, Clint Eastwood, and Karl Lagerfeld.

Stiftskeller serves traditional Austrian food and once a week, they host a dinner where musicians perform Mozart in traditional period costumes.

1. Hotel

hotel

Nishiyama Onsen Keiunkan – Japan
Est. 705

In the South Japanese Alps (yes, Japan has its own Alps, in case you didn’t know that and were confused) in the Hayakawa, Yamanashi Prefecture, you’ll find the oldest hotel in the world, Nishiyama Onsen Keiunkan. The hotel was founded by Fujiwara Mahito in the second year of the Keiun era (which is where the hotel gets its name), which is 705 in the Roman calendar.

Since its opening, the hotel (which is known for its hot springs) has been owned and operated by 52 generations of descendants from the original owner, although a few were adopted in. The hotel, which is close to Mount Fiji, will run you at least $475 to $570 USD per night.

If you’re wondering what the key to their 1,300 years of success is, Fortunespeculates that, based on the hotel’s strong reviews, it is their impeccable service.

Also, at 1,300 years old, Nishiyama Onsen Keiunkan is not only the oldest hotel in the world, but it is also thought to be the oldest business in operationtoday. Just to give you some idea as to how old it is, it is 225 years older than the Kingdom of Britain.


Benchmark Companies

– WIF Business

Black History Month 2

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Black History Month 2

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Page semi-protected
For the song, see Black History Month (song).
Black History Month
US Navy 090226-N-4236E-047 Sailors and Marines watch a dance performance during a Black History Month celebration.jpg

United States Navy sailors and Marines watching a dance performance in celebration of Black History Month
Also called African-American History Month
Observed by United StatesCanadaUnited Kingdom,Germany
Significance Celebration of African-American history
Date Months of February and October
Duration 1 month
Frequency annual

Black History Month, also known as African-American History Month in America, is an annual observance in the United States, Canada, and the United Kingdom for remembrance of important people and events in the history of theAfrican diaspora. It is celebrated annually in the United States and Canada[in February and the United Kingdom[3] in October.

 

 History

Negro History Week (1926)

The precursor to Black History Month was created in 1926 in the United States, when historian Carter G. Woodson and the Association for the Study of Negro Life and History announced the second week of February to be “Negro History Week.”[1] This week was chosen because it marked the birthday of bothAbraham Lincoln and Frederick Douglass.[1]

From the event’s initial phase, primary emphasis was placed on encouraging the coordinated teaching of the history of American blacks in the nation’s public schools. The first Negro History Week was met with a lukewarm response, gaining the cooperation of the Departments of Education of the states of North CarolinaDelaware, and West Virginia as well as the city school administrations of Baltimore and Washington, D.C..[4] Despite this far from universal acceptance, the event was nevertheless regarded by Woodson as “one of the most fortunate steps ever taken by the Association,” and plans for a repeat of the event on an annual basis continued apace.[4]

At the time of Negro History Week’s launch Woodson contended that the teaching of black history was essential to ensure the physical and intellectual survival of the race within broader society:

“If a race has no history, it has no worthwhile tradition, it becomes a negligible factor in the thought of the world, and it stands in danger of being exterminated. The American Indianleft no continuous record. He did not appreciate the value of tradition; and where is he today? The Hebrew keenly appreciated the value of tradition, as is attested by the Bible itself. In spite of worldwide persecution, therefore, he is a great factor in our civilization.”[5]

By 1929 The Journal of Negro History was able to note that with only two exceptions officials with the State Departments of Educations of “every state with considerable Negro population” had made the event known to that state’s teachers and distributed official literature associated with the event.”[6] Churches also played a significant role in the distribution of literature in association with Negro History Week during this initial interval, with the pages of the mainstream and black press aiding in the publicity effort.[7]

Negro History Week was met with enthusiastic response; it prompted the creation of black history clubs, an increase in interest among teachers, and interest from progressive whites. Negro History Week grew in popularity throughout the following decades, with mayors across the United States endorsing it as a holiday.[1]

Black History Month (1976)

The expansion of Black History Week to Black History Month was first proposed by the leaders of the Black United Students at Kent State University in February 1969. The first celebration of the Black History Month took place at Kent State one year later, in February 1970.[8]

In 1976 as part of the United States Bicentennial, the informal expansion of Negro History Week to Black History Month was officially recognized by the U.S. government. President Gerald Ford spoke in regards to this, urging Americans to “seize the opportunity to honor the too-often neglected accomplishments of black Americans in every area of endeavor throughout our history.”[9]

United Kingdom (1987)

Black History Month was first celebrated in the United Kingdom in 1987. This establishment of Black History Month is generally attributed to the work of Ghanaian analyst Akyaaba Addai-Sebo, as well as the Greater London Council.[3]

Canada (1995)

In 1995, after a motion by politician Jean Augustine, Canada’s House of Commons officially recognized February as Black History Month and honor Black Canadians . In 2008, Senator Donald Oliver moved to have the Senate officially recognize Black History Month, which was unanimously approved.[2]

Black History Month 2

On this Labor Day Weekend – “We The People of the Superior States of North America”

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“We The People of the Superior States of North America”

 

“Hereby secede from The United States of America.”

 

Superior States of North America

Solemn Declaration

Let it not be said that disaffected citizens of an existing nation cannot band together, in their like-mindedness, and create a land that is established with the blessing of God, to live together without beholding to a government which insists on ignoring the majority in favor of a raucous and gaudy minority.

  • We do not enter into this union lightly or without regard to its obligation to the greater community of the planet Earth.
  • We stand on the Word of God and adhere to its Superior guidance.
  • We are people of good moral standing, who treat all as equal under the sun and expect the best from ourselves.
  • We take complete and total responsibility for our actions, whether as individuals or together.
  • We shall defend our borders with fervor, respectful of our neighbors (Canada) to the North and (United States of America) to the South.

 

We the citizens of Superior States of North America hereby reject:

  • The blatant ignorance of the Constitution of the United States of America on which the country was established, but has been trampled upon by those currently in power.
  • The aggressive suppression of religious freedom as previously contracted by the Founding Fathers.
  • The inability to enforce the laws of the land as set forth by previous members of the United States’ Congresses.
  • The notion that “political correctness” takes precedence over common sense.
  • The Tax Code has become the personal toy of the Economic Elite, thereby creating an unsatisfactory disparity among the very rich and the very poor.

Within the Superior States of North America:

  • Sound moral code will rule the day
  • Compassion  will rule the day
  • Common Sense will rule the day
  • From each according to his ability, to each according to his need
  • The One True God will rule His people

img024

 

*DISCLAIMER*

This is a postulate set forth by the goals & aspirations of Gwendolyn Hoff and her alone, with the hope of inspiring like-minded people to action. She is not a card-carrying member of the Tea Party and does not endorse continued participation as citizens of the United States of America.

The map as shown is subject to the approval by referendum by the entire individual states of Wisconsin, Minnesota, Iowa, North & South Dakota, Idaho and Montana. It is also subject to the approval by referendum of counties bordering the following states, Michigan, Illinois and Wyoming.

Gwenny

Gwenny

 

“I am not a revolutionary, merely disenchanted by the ongoing erosion of our nation’s morals by fringe minorities and 1st Amendment abusers….and all the other Amendments to our Constitution that are being ignored, distorted or misinterpreted.”

writingisfun-damental

“We The People of the Superior States of North America”

Leave a comment

writingisfun-damental

“We The People of the Superior States of North America”

“Hereby secede from The United States of America.”

Superior States of North America

Solemn Declaration

 

Let it not be said that disaffected citizens of an existing nation cannot band together, in their like-mindedness, and create a land that is established with the blessing of God, to live together without beholding to a government which insists on ignoring the majority in favor of a raucous and gaudy minority.
  • We do not enter into this union lightly or without regard to its obligation to the greater community of the planet Earth.
  • We stand on the Word of God and adhere to its Superior guidance.
  • We are people of good moral standing, who treat all as equal under the sun and expect the best from ourselves.
  • We take complete and total responsibility for our actions, whether as individuals or together.
  • We shall defend our borders with fervor, respectful of our neighbors (Canada) to the North and (United States of America) to the South.

 

We the citizens of Superior States of North America hereby reject:

  • The blatant ignorance of the Constitution of the United States of America on which the country was established, but has been trampled upon by those currently in power.
  • The aggressive suppression of religious freedom as previously contracted by the Founding Fathers.
  • The inability to enforce the laws of the land as set forth by previous members of the United States’ Congresses.
  • The notion that “political correctness” takes precedence over common sense.
  • The Tax Code has become the personal toy of the Economic Elite, thereby creating an unsatisfactory disparity among the very rich and the very poor.

Within the Superior States of North America:

  • Sound moral code will rule the day
  • Compassion  will rule the day
  • Common Sense will rule the day
  • From each according to his ability, to each according to his need
  • The One True God will rule His people

 

*DISCLAIMER*

This is a postulate set forth by the goals & aspirations of Gwendolyn Hoff and her alone, with the hope of inspiring like-minded people to action. She is not a card-carrying member of the Tea Party and does not endorse continued participation as citizens of the United States of America.

The map as shown is subject to the approval by referendum by the entire individual states of Wisconsin, Minnesota, Iowa, North & South Dakota, Idaho and Montana. It is also subject to the approval by referendum of counties bordering the following states, Michigan, Illinois and Wyoming.

Gwenny

Gwenny

Black History Month 2

Leave a comment

Black History Month 2

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Page semi-protected
For the song, see Black History Month (song).
Black History Month
US Navy 090226-N-4236E-047 Sailors and Marines watch a dance performance during a Black History Month celebration.jpg

United States Navy sailors and Marines watching a dance performance in celebration of Black History Month
Also called African-American History Month
Observed by United StatesCanadaUnited Kingdom,Germany
Significance Celebration of African-American history
Date Months of February and October
Duration 1 month
Frequency annual

Black History Month, also known as African-American History Month in America, is an annual observance in the United States, Canada, and the United Kingdom for remembrance of important people and events in the history of theAfrican diaspora. It is celebrated annually in the United States[1] and Canada[2]in February and the United Kingdom[3] in October.

 

Contents

[show]

 

History

Negro History Week (1926)

The precursor to Black History Month was created in 1926 in the United States, when historian Carter G. Woodson and the Association for the Study of Negro Life and History announced the second week of February to be “Negro History Week.”[1] This week was chosen because it marked the birthday of bothAbraham Lincoln and Frederick Douglass.[1]

From the event’s initial phase, primary emphasis was placed on encouraging the coordinated teaching of the history of American blacks in the nation’s public schools. The first Negro History Week was met with a lukewarm response, gaining the cooperation of the Departments of Education of the states of North CarolinaDelaware, and West Virginia as well as the city school administrations of Baltimore and Washington, D.C..[4] Despite this far from universal acceptance, the event was nevertheless regarded by Woodson as “one of the most fortunate steps ever taken by the Association,” and plans for a repeat of the event on an annual basis continued apace.[4]

At the time of Negro History Week’s launch Woodson contended that the teaching of black history was essential to ensure the physical and intellectual survival of the race within broader society:

“If a race has no history, it has no worthwhile tradition, it becomes a negligible factor in the thought of the world, and it stands in danger of being exterminated. The American Indianleft no continuous record. He did not appreciate the value of tradition; and where is he today? The Hebrew keenly appreciated the value of tradition, as is attested by the Bible itself. In spite of worldwide persecution, therefore, he is a great factor in our civilization.”[5]

By 1929 The Journal of Negro History was able to note that with only two exceptions officials with the State Departments of Educations of “every state with considerable Negro population” had made the event known to that state’s teachers and distributed official literature associated with the event.”[6] Churches also played a significant role in the distribution of literature in association with Negro History Week during this initial interval, with the pages of the mainstream and black press aiding in the publicity effort.[7]

Negro History Week was met with enthusiastic response; it prompted the creation of black history clubs, an increase in interest among teachers, and interest from progressive whites. Negro History Week grew in popularity throughout the following decades, with mayors across the United States endorsing it as a holiday.[1]

Black History Month (1976)

The expansion of Black History Week to Black History Month was first proposed by the leaders of the Black United Students at Kent State University in February 1969. The first celebration of the Black History Month took place at Kent State one year later, in February 1970.[8]

In 1976 as part of the United States Bicentennial, the informal expansion of Negro History Week to Black History Month was officially recognized by the U.S. government. President Gerald Ford spoke in regards to this, urging Americans to “seize the opportunity to honor the too-often neglected accomplishments of black Americans in every area of endeavor throughout our history.”[9]

United Kingdom (1987)

Black History Month was first celebrated in the United Kingdom in 1987. This establishment of Black History Month is generally attributed to the work of Ghanaian analyst Akyaaba Addai-Sebo, as well as the Greater London Council.[3]

Canada (1995)

In 1995, after a motion by politician Jean Augustine, Canada’s House of Commons officially recognized February as Black History Month and honor Black Canadians . In 2008, Senator Donald Oliver moved to have the Senate officially recognize Black History Month, which was unanimously approved.[2]

Black History Month 2