Computer Generated Imagery… Not!

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Practical Effects

You Thought Were

Computer Generated

One of the most important aspects of the film-making is keeping the audience immersed in the world it’s being shown. Whether the characters are in a fantasy world or jumping out of a moving car, the audiences’ willingness to go along with the story is, in large part, due to the viewer’s willingness to suspend disbelief. The goal of a filmmaker is to keep the audience so entranced that it’s only afterward that they begin to question or wonder how some of the amazing feats were accomplished.

And because of the advancements in CGI, many audience members simply write off the incredible as ordinary. Many believe that the stunts are simply CGI when, in fact, some of the most powerful scenes in recent memory have been real, practical, extremely dangerous stunts.

10. The Dark Knight

Christopher Nolan is something of a realist. One of the best directors of his generation, he has resisted the switch to digital and has continued to shoot on film; it’s not surprising, then, that he’d do everything in his power to make CGI as limited as possible in his blockbuster works. A daring filmmaker who continues to tell stories in a unique narrative style and voice, Nolan was at the helm of the revitalization of the Batman franchise. In one of the most iconic scenes from The Dark Knight, Batman attempts to save Harvey Dent from the Joker, who is determined to blow up a police escort. In the well-known tunnel sequence, the Batmobile rams into a garbage truck. The scene left many scratching their heads, marveling about the realism of CGI. The truth is that it was real. Every bit.

Nolan and his team constructed a one-third scale model of the Batmobile, as well as the truck and that particularly part of Chicago’s lower Wacker Drive. Nolan’s stunt team placed both models on a guide and smashed them into each other to create the scene. The same strategy was used for the semi-trailer truck that flips on its head. All in all, the plan was executed brilliantly and viewer is left marveling at the world they created.

9. The Dark Knight Rises

Christopher Nolan was at it again in the final installment of his Batman trilogy. According to Nolan, one of his proudest moments was executing the opening scene, where Bane escapes from the CIA plane, mid-flight. It’s an exhilarating sequence, that – again – did not use CGI. The scene was filmed in Scotland, over the Cairngorm Mountains of the Scottish Highlands. It’s the highest mountain range in the UK and is described as incredibly cold, with incessant winds and an unforgiving climate. The CIA plane used in the film was a Lockheed C-130 Hercules, commissioned by the US military. It was a perfect fit for the stunt with a stall speed as low as 111 miles per hour. Nolan and his camera crew were able to follow the plane in a helicopter, recording the exterior action. The particulars are so difficult to describe in detail that when Nolan was asked about the stunt, he said “It was sort of an incredible coming together of lots and lots of planning by a lot of members of the team who worked for months rehearsing all these parachute jumps.”

The action inside the plane was much more straightforward. It was accomplished by building a simulator, where Nolan could rotate, shake and twist the fuselage, making the actors almost weightless inside the device. Put together, Nolan was able to add another jaw-dropping scene to his filmography.

8. Star Wars: The Force Awakens

One of the most highly anticipated films in recent memory, Star Wars: The Force Awakens made sure to capitalize off the hype, introducing several real props, creatures, and locations. Probably the most notable prop was the droid BB-8. JJ Abrams and crew made sure they had a BB-8 for whatever sequence they were filming. They constructed a BB-8 that could show emotion when held be actors, a BB-8 that could be thrown around and stay upright, a BB-8 controlled by rod puppeteers, and even a fully functioning droid that could roll around like a possessed bowling ball.

Abrams and crew didn’t phone it in with CGI when they really probably could have, either. Don’t get us wrong; there’s obviously a ton of CGI in a movie featuring literal spaceship battles. But even small effects like Rey’s food materializing was real. A sequence that was on screen for seconds took more than 3 months to develop and execute. And while it may not seem worth it, the smallest things can take a viewer out of a world, and The Force Awakens did a great job of refusing to allow the audience to easily fall astray.

7. Apollo 13

One of the best films depicting NASA astronauts is Ron Howard’s Apollo 13. Starring Tom Hanks, Kevin Bacon, and Bill Paxton, the film depicts the aborted 1970 lunar mission, which became a mission of survival. Instead of using CGI, Howard wanted to create an atmosphere or experience that allowed viewers to truly appreciate the fear and unease that the astronauts experienced. Howard utilized NASA’s “Vomit Comet” KC-135 airplane, designed for one purpose: creating a zero-G environment on Earth.

In order to accomplish such a feat, the KC-135 does a series of parabolic arcs at very fast speeds; this results in a window of weightlessness for the passengers. According to reports, it took more than 600 arcs for Howard to get the take he liked. It’s now clear that he knew what he was doing: the movie was nominated for 9 Academy Awards and grossed more than $355 million worldwide.

6. Skyfall

Good filmmakers certainly know how to catch an audience’s attention. The opening scene from Skyfall is no different. Every kick and punch thrown in the scene is actually performed by Daniel Craig and his counterpart on top of a speeding train. The only thing keeping them from falling is a wire that’s as thin as one’s finger. Bond films are notorious for real stunts that push the boundaries.

In Spectre, the follow-up installment in the Bond franchise, filmmakers set a Guinness record for stunts in a single production. So next time you’re watching a Bond film, make sure you take a second to appreciate the risks that some of these men and women are taking for our entertainment.

5. Mad Max: Fury Road

This is one of the most unique examples on our list because of its utilization of both CGI and real stunts to make compelling scenes. In that iconic scene where Tom Hardy is dangling perilously close to the ground, that’s completely real. All that was keeping Hardy from being roadkill was a thin cable. The sequence in question was also filmed while Hardy’s son was on set, too. Director George Miller, when asked what would happen if the cable snapped, remarked, “He’d probably go under the wheels.” Good one, George. Miller is known for pushing the limits of ordinary film practices. He hired “Cirque du Soleil performers to rock around on Chinese acrobat poles while a camera rig weaved through them at up to 100 mph.”

If that wasn’t enough, the film’s production also saw the invention of a new way to flip a car: a “nitrogen-powered metallic blade” was designed to pop down on the car, forcing it to make those ridiculous flips in the movie. Not bad for the director of Happy Feet and Babe: Pig in the City. That’ll do, George. That’ll do.

4. Mission: Impossible (Pretty Much the Whole Film Franchise)

Tom Cruise is notorious for doing most of his own stunts in his films. Shooting the upcoming installment in the Mission: Impossible series, Cruise even broke his ankle trying to jump to an adjacent rooftop. This wasn’t the first time Cruise has put himself into harm’s way. In the original, he dangled from a ceiling; in the sequel he hung off the side of a cliff. In Mission: Impossible – Ghost Protocol, he scaled the side of Burj Khalifa. And in Mission: Impossible – Rogue Nation, he clung to a side of a flying plane.

Each of these stunts was performed by Cruise, without the use of stuntmen. Talk about courage (or lunacy… or maybe a little bit of both). In Rogue Nation, Cruise only had wires attached to his body as he gripped the side of a flying plane. We suppose that’s why they pay him the big bucks.

3. The Amazing Spider-Man

One of the unique bits of the Spider-Man reboot was director Marc Webb’s decision to make the web-slinging aspects of the film real. In past Spider-Man movies, the web-slinging was mostly all CGI and it became apparent in scenes that took many viewers out of the movie. Instead, The Amazing Spider-Man and its sequel relied mostly on stuntmen and Andrew Garfield himself, who was willing to participate in the action. Stunt coordinator Andy Armstrong described in an interview the difficult process of executing such a stunt. Through his research, he found that the difficulty in the execution was based, in part, on the past versions of Spider-Man depicting his downward swing as the same as his upward motion.

Armstrong and his team constructed “a track being pulled by a high-speed winch to help emulate Spidey’s web-swinging ways.” He’d go on to describe it as cracking a whip. A stuntman would “drop into the bottom of the pendulum, and as he reached the bottom of his arc, someone driving the winch would pull a dolly along to the next spot.” With a little digital effects to boot, The Amazing Spider-Man films created a whole new way of looking at one of our favorite superheroes.

2. The Matrix Reloaded

Don’t jump down our throats. We know The Matrix Reloaded relied on a heavy amount of CGI. However, it’d surprise most readers to know how many of the action sequences actually relied upon real stunts. One of the most memorable sequences in the entire trilogy, the Agents chasing Morpheus and Trinity on the highway, was no exception.

Although the Agent seen jumping from the hood of a vehicle was added later in post production, the chain reaction of car crashes and the actual implosion of the car was real. The Wachowskis managed to oversee the use of special rigs, cannons, and ramps to create the massively destructive sequence. The filmmakers choice to use real stunts and props is one of the major reasons The Matrix series has, for the most part, continued to stand the test of time.

1. Inception

Hey, we couldn’t end our list without another Christopher Nolan movie. The uncompromising auteur has managed to consistently create stunning visual sequences without relying on CGI. Probably the most memorable scene in Inception was Leonardo DiCaprio and Ellen Page’s characters conversation at a coffee shop in Paris. Suddenly, an explosion sends debris, and broken glass into the air. All the while, DiCaprio and Page remain in the center of the storm.

The sequence was executed by production designer Chris Corbould, shooting a series of air cannons while director of photography Wally Pfister shot at 1,500 frames per second. It made for one of the most memorable parts of the movie, introducing the audience to the idea of Inception. Not to be outdone, later in the film there’s a fight scene featuring Joseph Gordon-Levitt in a hotel room and hallway, in which the room continues to rotate, allowing the combatants to run up the walls and on the ceiling. As you’ve no doubt guessed by now, particularly if you watched the video up above, that was all done entirely with practical sets and stunts.

Computer Generated Imagery… Not! –

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Director Christopher Nolan – Fabulous Film Facts



Facts About the Films

of Christopher Nolan

With the release of Interstellar, Christopher Nolan has proven once again that he’ll go down as one of this generation’s great directors. At a box office crowded with sequels and reboots, Nolan dares to be original and still manages to produce one blockbuster success after another. Even a figure as iconic as Batman became Christopher Nolan’s Batman, and the director shaped how the superhero will be viewed for decades to come. Nolan’s films have produced a legion of fervent fans, and that’s let us produce a list of some facts you might not know about his work.

10. The Killing Joke Was a Major Inspiration for The Dark Knight


Alan Moore is best known for his graphic novel Watchmen, which was included in Time’s list of the best 100 novels of all time. He’s also the author of The Killing Joke, a graphic novel that provides an origin story for the Joker. The Killing Joke, like The Dark Knight, depicts an unreliable Joker who tells multiple versions of his past and explores his complicated relationship with Batman.

Christopher Nolan addressed The Killing Joke’s influence on Heath Ledger’s Joker in an interview with Variety: “…The Joker is an anarchist. He’s dedicated to chaos. He should really have no purpose but I think the underlying belief that Alan Moore got across very clearly is that on some level The Joker wants to pull everybody down to his level and show that he’s not an unusual monster and that everyone else can be debased and corrupted like he is.”

9. Memento is Based on a Short Story Called “Memento Mori” by Christopher Nolan’s Brother


“Memento Mori,” by Jonathan Nolan, reads as a prequel of sorts to Memento. It tells the story of a man named Earl who suffers from “backwards amnesia.” Every 10 minutes his memory resets, and he’s left with only the memories he had prior to the incident that left him brain damaged. At the beginning of “Memento Mori,” Earl wakes up in a mental hospital and later escapes.

This implies that Leonard from Memento was also in a mental hospital and escaped prior to the events of the film. A moment late in the movie would seem to support this: As Leonard is remembering Sammy Jankis, a man he once knew who shared his condition, he imagines Sammy sitting in a mental hospital. But then, for a split second, Sammy is replaced by Leonard.

8. The Entire Score of Inception is a Single Manipulated Beat From “Non, je ne Regrette Rien”


The song, composed by Charles Dumont and recorded by Edith Piaf in 1960, serves as a warning to wake up from the dream state in Inception. In aninterview with The New York Times, composer Hans Zimmer explained how he got a French scientist to extract a single note from the original recording of the song. Then he slowed it way, way down to varying degrees to create the movie’s epic score.

So when the dreamers hear those rumbling tones in the dream world, they’re actually hearing a single note from the song playing out around their waking bodies. Like the dreamers, the music has to deal with the progressive stretching and lengthening of time as they plunge deeper and deeper into the dream world. “Everybody thinks the dream is the important part,” Zimmer said. “For me, the time was the important part: the idea that, in a peculiar way, Chris had made a time-travel movie that actually worked.”

7. Christopher Nolan Loves Hiding Meaning in Characters Names

(L-R)  Hugh Jackman, Andy Serkis

The initials of the two main characters played by Christian Bale and Hugh Jackman in The Prestige spell ABRA (Alfred Borden and Robert Angier), as in the magical word “abracadabra.” And in Inception the first letter of each of the main characters’ names — Dom, Robert, Eames, Arthur and Ariadne, Mal, Saito — spells “dreams.” We see what you did there, Chris.

6. Steven Spielberg Was Originally Going to Direct Interstellar 


In 2006, /Film reported that Steven Spielberg was developing a “space time travel film” he planned to direct. The film would tell the story of a group of explorers who travel through a wormhole and into another dimension. The idea traced back to a treatment by Caltech theoretical physicist Kip Thorne, known for his contributions to gravitational physics and astrophysics. Thorne claimed that wormholes exist and could be used to achieve time travel. Spielberg got the idea for the film after he attended a Caltech workshop with Thorne and other scientists. Jonathan Nolan was hired to write the screenplay for Spielberg, and Christopher stepped in to direct when Spielberg backed out. Given their respective approaches to film making, Spielberg’s Interstellar could have looked very different indeed.

5. Each Member of the Team in Inception Symbolizes a Role in Movie Development


In an interview with Entertainment Weekly, Nolan explained that the role each member of the dream team in Inception plays has a movie equivalent. The Architect would be the production designer, the Forger would be the actor, the Point Man would be the producer, the Extractor would be the director and the Mark would be the audience. “In trying to write a team-based creative process, I wrote the one I know,” Nolan said.

4. A Song Sung by a Choirboy in Batman Begins andThe Dark Knight Rises Has Symbolic Meaning


A choirboy sings mournfully after the death of Bruce Wayne’s parents in Batman Begins. In an interview with Empire, Hans Zimmer explains that this symbolizes Bruce Wayne’s inability to move forward after his parents’ deaths. Zimmer said, “If you listen really carefully in the first film, there’s this little choir boy at one point, and what the choir boy does, through electronic trickery and too much time spent in the studio, his note actually freezes and goes on for about four minutes. I know that’s really dodgy symbolism, but we literally froze him in time.”

This theme doesn’t return until the very end of The Dark Knight Rises, as Batman flies over the sea toward a new future. The little boy sings one last time as Bruce Wayne unshackles himself from his tragic past.

3. Nolan’s First Feature Film

Had a Budget of $6,000


Following is a con man/murder drama made on a teensy-tiny budget. To put it in perspective, Memento cost $4.5 million while The Dark Knight had a budget of a cool $185 million. Nolan said in an interview with the A.V. Club, “Following was a film that I made knowing I couldn’t get any money for it, knowing that I was going to have to pay for it myself. I wasn’t a wealthy person. Everyone involved in the film was, you know, working full-time and trying to get by in London, which is difficult and expensive. But we figured out that if you shot in 16mm black and white, which made the lighting much easier to set up, we could shoot 15 minutes of footage every week, and pay for that, and keep going one day a week as we earned money through our various jobs.”

It may have been be this early penny pinching that enabled Nolan to now, as Danny Boyle told Deadline, “take $160 million and make it look like $320 million.”

2. Several Cast Members of Following Have Cameos In Batman Begins


Jeremy Theobold, the male lead in Following, plays a Wayne Enterprises water board technician who points out that the water pressure is spiking toward the end of the film. Lucy Russell, Following’s female lead, defends Batman to other guests during a dinner Bruce Wayne attends at a restaurant. John Nolan, Christopher’s uncle and the policeman in Following, plays a Wayne Enterprises board member who’s loyal to Bruce’s father and tells Bruce that “the apple has fallen very far from the tree” at his birthday party.

1. Inception Took Nolan 10 Years to Write


In an interview with Deadline, Nolan explained how the idea for Inception hadburned in him for a long time before he was able to get it right. His great breakthrough was realizing the emotional center of the story: Dom’s love for his wife and his determination to get home to his children.

He pointed out the value of not giving up on one’s ideas: “I certainly have other ideas I’ve not been able to crack that I see great potential in, sitting in the back of a drawer. You never quite know what you’re going to come back to and figure out how to make it work. You never quite know where that desire to finish something, or return to something in a fresh way, is going to come from. Every time I finished a film and went back and looked at it, I had changed as a person. The script was different to me. And, eventually, who I was as a writer, as a filmmaker, and what the script needed to be, all these things coincided.”

Director Christopher Nolan

– Fabulous Film Facts