Constance Caraway P.I. ~ Episode 61

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Constance Caraway P.I. ~ Episode 61

…Willard Libby’s mental prison continued…

A discombobulated human brain, safely ensconced in a distant mental hospital, begins the near impossible task of putting thoughts back together, spurred on by the visit of a friend. Like Charlie McCarthy without Edgar Bergen, this poor soul is left without an advocate, an audible voice to explain the inexplicable; The Charlie McCarthy Show, sponsored by Coca-Cola, being one of the few forms of entertainment he gets over his room’s loudspeaker every Sunday night.

‘I am getting tired of being treated like a child. They speak at me not to me. If I could speak I would tell them that they are all a bunch of quacks. The drugs they gave me were meant for a raving lunatic, do I look like a raving lunatic? No, but when in doubt there has to be a drug solution. The guys who stole me away from Argonne…….Wolf—Wolfgram I heard him called by name, caused me to become concussed. Couldn’t these cretins figure that out? I am sure I was about to come around once I was thawed out, but noooo, use high voltage to shock me into consciousness. Brilliant! I have a monumental finding to share with the world. Billy said it will cause a revival, a thousand times bigger than his crusades. The Pope should know all about crusades, unless conquering countries in the name of God isn’t kosher. Kosher pickles are the best, I usually have one with my grilled cheese sandwiches; the only food at the University cafeteria that is digestible. Chicago that is where the University is; I don’t have a clue where I am now. Martin will take care of things; he likes the tuna fish casserole.’

Madness or brilliance; there is a fine line between genius and (in)sanity.

Genius


Constance Caraway P.I.

Forever Mastadon


page 58 (end Ch. 6)

Coca-Cola Confidential

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5 Dark Secrets

About Coca-Cola

Coca-Cola was invented in 1886 by a pharmacist named Dr. John Stith Pemberton, who was also a Civil War vet and morphine addict. Coke is based on a drink called Vin Marine, which was brewed by Parisian chemist Angelo Mariani. Today, Coca-Cola is the most popular soft drink in the world. These are its five darkest secrets.

 5. Actively Worked To Make Sure Kids Drank Coca-Cola Instead of Healthy Choices

In the 1990s, many soft drink companies were trying to attract consumers in a very saturated market. Coca-Cola’s plan was to go after high school students and hopefully get them to choose their brand for life, which is pretty much the same way that tobacco companies used to lure customers.

In the mid-1990s, Coca-Cola started to sign “pouring contracts” with schools. In exchange for premiums that were paid to the schools, Coca-Cola wanted exclusive rights to sell their products in vending machines and in the cafeteria. The schools, who often worked with tight budgets, usually agreed to do it. In some cases, Coca-Cola gave many schools around $30,000 up front and then a commission for the exclusive rights to sell Coke products in their schools for 10 years. In one case, Coca-Cola gave $90,000 to a school in Syracuse, New York, to build a stadium that had a big Coca-Cola sign on it.

While that may not seem super sinister, where it gets into the shady territory is that schools were then encouraged to sell Coke and given bonuses if they sold more product. They were also told that they would make less money if they sold healthier options, like milk or fruit juices, instead of soft drinks. In some cases, healthier options weren’t available at all because Coca-Cola didn’t approve them to be sold in the schools.

Now, 20 years later, there is an obesity epidemic in America. Of course, Coca-Cola has contributed to this problem and they have even acknowledged this in their own reports. For the past 10 years, the single biggest threat to Coca’s Cola profit has been obesity.

4. Their Water Problems

While the recipe for Coca-Cola is a closely guarded secret, one main ingredient that they need to produce the sugary drink is water. It takes 0.71 gallons of water to make 0.26 gallons of Coca-Cola. This becomes a major headache when Coca-Cola decides to set up bottling factories in places that don’t have a lot of water to begin with. Examples of where this has happened are in several states in India, and several places in Latin America.

What happens is that Coca-Cola sets up a bottling plant, they use up too much ground water. That causes water shortages in the area, which means there isn’t enough water to drink or to irrigate crops, which then leads to food shortages. After a decade of protesting, one plant in India was shut down in 2015, but Coca-Cola plants using up too much local water is still a problem in India, Latin America, and in developing countries around the world.

3. Coca-Cola No Longer Contains Cocaine (For a Pretty Racist Reason)

One of the most famous rumors about Coca-Cola is that the original recipe used cocaine… and it’s totally true. They used coca leaves which contained the cocaine alkaloid, which is used to make powdered cocaine.

 It’s tough to say exactly how much cocaine the original drink contained, but there was a little bit in it. Also, the original Coca-Cola was alcoholic as well. However, in 1886, Atlanta (where Coke was bottled) enacted prohibition. So the alcohol was removed and more sugar was added, but the cocaine remained an ingredient in the drink for the next decade.

In 1899, Coca-Cola started selling their drinks in bottles. The bottles were popular among African-Americans because they didn’t have access to fountain pop due to segregation laws. However, this started a panic among some white middle and upper class people. Some very vocal members of those communities were terrified that black people who were empowered by a cocaine drink might start attacking them, and they wouldn’t be able to stop them. In response to the fears, Coca-Cola started to phase out cocaine from the recipe in 1903, and replaced it with caffeine and even more sugar.

2. Coca-Cola and The Colombian Unions

On December 5, 1986, a right-wing paramilitary unit showed up at a Coca-Cola bottling plant in Carepa, Colombia. One of the plant’s union executives, Isidro Segundo Gil, went to ask what the squad wanted and they opened fire on him, killing him. Later that night, the paramilitary group went to the union’s headquarters, where they destroyed their equipment and then burned the place to destroy all the records inside.

The next day, the paramilitary went into the bottling plant and gave the union workers a choice: quit, or die like Gil. Obviously, many of the employees, who were earning $380 to $400 a month, quit their jobs. After they quit, the paramilitary shacked up in the bottling plant for two months. When the plant reopened, the union workers were replaced with workers who were paid $130 a month.

While there is no conclusive evidence that anyone from Coca-Cola’s main office ordered any of the murders, critics point out that Coca-Cola did very little to investigate the murders. In fact, they didn’t complain to the Colombian government that the paramilitary killed their workers or that they were squatting in their facility for two months.

Also, at the time of the assassination, the union workers were trying to negotiate better working conditions with the bottling company Bebidas y Alimentos, which was contracted by Coca-Cola to bottle their product in South America. In the years after the murder, Bebidas has refused to negotiate anything with their workers.

Finally, this wasn’t the only Coca-Cola union to be targeted. At least five other union members working with Coca-Cola were killed in Colombia and the union members were told to quit or die themselves.

In 2001, the Sinaltrainal union brought a lawsuit against Bebidas and Coca-Cola, but the motion against Coca-Cola was dismissed in 2003.

1. Coca-Cola and Peruvian Farmers

As we’ve mentioned, the original Coca-Cola formula contained a small amount of cocaine. When they changed the formula, they had a company called Maywood Chemical Works, which is now the Stepan Company, import coca leaves into the United States from Peru.

Once in the United States, Stepan, who still imports the coca leaves for Coca-Cola, removes the alkaloid that is the key component in powdered cocaine and then they send Coca-Cola the decocainized coca leaf extract. As for what Stepan does with the cocaine alkaloid? Well, they sell it under government supervision for medical use.

For over a century, when drug laws were enacted like the Harrison Narcotics Act of 1914 and the Jones-Miller Act of 1922, they made special exemptions to allow Coca-Cola to keep importing coca plants; making them one of the few American companies that were allowed to import the coca plant. As time went on, Coca-Cola’s popularity increased and Stepan couldn’t sell all the cocaine alkaloid it extracted. This led to special legislation being passed so that Stepan could destroy the excess cocaine alkaloid under government supervision.

 The problem is that coca leaves can be used to make many other products besides Coca-Cola and cocaine like tea, candies, and flour, but the coca farmers in Peru, called cocaleros, can only access the American market through Coca-Cola because of the drug laws that were enacted to stop cocaine from getting into America. With only one purchaser of their product, the cocaleros can do little more than accept Coca-Cola’s terms. As a result, the farmers stay poor, while Coca-Cola made $41 billion in 2016.

Coca-Cola

Confidential

Coca-Cola, What’s in it?

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Top 10 Controversial Ingredients

Found In Coca-Cola

 

Coca-Cola has been at the center of controversy ever since the fizzy drink first graced the shelves. Myths and rumors are abound about the ingredients used to make Coke. While some of this is either unproven, or blown out of proportion, many of these stories are quite true, and quite disturbing.

Let’s take a look at 10 of the most controversial ingredients/contaminants found in Coca-Cola and analyze what scientific studies reveal. This is not so much to scare you into pouring all of your Coke down the toilet, but more to encourage you to inform yourself about what you are drinking.

10. Alcohol

alcohol-coca-cola

According to research carried out by the French National Institute for Consumer Affairs, more than half of well-known colas contain tiny traces of booze. Don’t worry though; you would have to drink something like 13,000 cans of the stuff to even come close to being legally drunk. Scientists tested 19 different brands and discovered levels of alcohol as low as 10 mg/liter.

As expected, the French study sparked quite a controversy, and divided the Muslim community into pro- and anti-Coca-Cola campaigners. While some Muslims believe that it is irrelevant if the product contains 0.001% alcohol or 100% – it is haram either way – others find it acceptable, since small traces of alcohol can be found in a lot of things, including many fruit-based products.

9. Citric Acid

citric-acid

Manufacturers commonly use citric acid as a preservative and flavor enhancer. However, contrary to what you might expect, 99% of the citric acid added to drinks and foods does not come from citrus fruits. Extracting citric acid from lemons, limes, oranges, and grapefruits is far too expensive for the corporations. And so we get the artificial stuff that  you consume every time you sip your Coke.

However, any concerns that the citric acid in Coke is bad for you is both erroneous and the result of an undeserved bad reputation. Basically, a study in the British Dental Journal claimed to find a strong link between carbonated beverages and tooth erosion. Consuming at least four glasses of carbonated soft drinks a day was associated with a 252% higher risk of tooth problems in 12-year-olds, and a 513% higher risk in 14-year-old children. This is almost certainly not taking other factors into account, as Coca Cola has a pH of 2.525 (Diet Coke has 3.289,) and while battery acid (an actual corrosive) has a pH very close to 1. In short, citric acid is a very weak acid, and comparing it to something truly destructive has nothing to do with reality.

And now we get into more harmful territory …

8. Phosphoric Acid

Phosphoric-Acid

Phosphoric acid – also known as orthophosphoric acid – is used as an acidifying agent to add tartness to cola. This, combined with the  huge amounts of high fructose corn syrup mixed in, both mask and balance the acidity of carbonated drinks.

A study was published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, which provides reasonable evidence to support the association between consumption of cola and lower bone density. Some studies claim that phosphoric acid lowers the levels of calcium. Moreover, a team of scientists from the US National Institutes of Health has found that drinking two or more colas a day doubles the risk of kidney stones.

Now, Coca-Cola contains various acids but as we discussed earlier, none are potent enough to dissolve a nail, tooth or penny in four days.

7. Mercury

mercury

The Institute for Agriculture and Trade Policy has discovered that 9 of 20 tested samples of commercial high-fructose corn syrup were contaminated with mercury. The Institute also found that 55 kid-friendly foods and soft drinks contained total mercury, which is any combination of inorganic, organic or metallic mercury.

As you can see, there are plenty of products with higher mercury levels than Coke, but the level is still fairly high:

mercury-levels

If you are asking yourself how the heck mercury would have gotten into high-fructose corn syrup, here’s a possible answer: mercury-grade caustic soda and hydrochloric acid are primarily used to separate corn starch from the corn kernel, and to adjust the pH level of the process. The contamination seems to occur when mercury-grade caustic soda and outdated mercury cell technology are used in the production of HFCS.

The good news is that mercury-contaminated HFCS is a completely avoidable problem, since mercury-free versions of the two reagents are available.

6. Sodium Benzoate

Sodium-Benzoate

Manufacturers commonly use sodium benzoate as a preservative, and you can find it in carbonated drinks, pickles, soy sauce, dressings, jams and fruit juices, cosmetics, medicines, and so on.

The International Programme on Chemical Safety, and other regulatory bodies, found no adverse effects in humans at doses of 650 to 830 mg. per day. The effects of higher amounts are unknown, but almost certainly bad, judging by the increased obesity rates all over the world. Sodium benzoate does not occur naturally in foods and drinks. Manufacturers try to confuse consumers by masking these preservatives with labels that say antimicrobial nutrients.

If processed foods are not part of your daily diet, there are no risks, but let’s be honest, it is. We all know what an integral part of the modern lifestyle processed, convenient foods are. Coca-Cola is in the process of phasing out the controversial additive in the UK, due to consumer pressure, but fruit-juice based products will still contain it.

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5. Benzene

benzene

Benzene is a natural constituent of crude oil, gasoline, and tobacco smoke, and has been classified as a class A human carcinogen. Does that sound like something you want in your soft drink? Probably not.

Research scientists Glen Lawrence and Lalita Gardner described the exact chemical reaction that takes place between ascorbic acid (Vitamin C) and sodium benzene to form benzene. The groundbreaking research appeared in the early ‘90s in the Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry.

In 2005, the FDA found that 10 samples of soft drinks out of 200 contained benzene levels over 5 parts per billion, which is above the legal limit. All 10 soft drinks have either been reformulated to meet standards, or just plain taken off the market.

The next year, the FDA released preliminary results for 100 soft drinks. Most of them contained legal levels of benzene, but four products exceeded 5 ppb. Two of the drinks contained benzene 18 times higher than permissible.

According to studies conducted by the Environmental Working Group, there are about 5 and 138 PPB of benzene in Coca-Cola. And, as the American Petroleum Institute stated, “It is generally considered that the only absolutely safe concentration for benzene is zero.” Drink up!

4. 4-methylimidazole (4-MEI)

4-methylimidazole

4-methylimidazole is a byproduct that occurs in caramel coloring, and may also be formed in the cooking, roasting, broiling, grilling or other processing of some foods and beverages. The National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences has identified the carcinogenic 2-and 4-methylimidazole as undesirable byproducts in many foods, and no limits are currently set on the quantities of caramel coloring used in foods and beverages.

The roughly 130 mg of 4-methylimidazole in a 12-ounce cola is four times higher than the NSRL-recommended limits. Coca-Cola has agreed to change, in some states anyway, the manufacturing process. Mainly because not doing so would have forced them to put a cancer warning on the label, and nobody needs that kind of publicity.

It is, quite frankly, disturbing how companies get away with marketing caramel-colored products as natural. From the legal point of view, the International Food and Agriculture Organization’s Codex Alimentarius does not have a standard for natural foods because it does not recognize the term natural (probably because literally anything can be deemed something as vague as “natural.”) Perhaps it’s time to crack down on this.

3. Aspartame

aspartame-packets

Aspartame is a low-calorie artificial sweetener, about 200 times sweeter than sugar. It is added to weight control products, soft drinks, yogurt, cereal, chewing gum, cooking sauces, desserts, sweets, etc.

Of course, just because its popular, doesn’t mean it’s good for you. Diet Coke contains about 180 milligrams of aspartame per 8.3-ounce serving. The bitter truth is that weight control products ruin the body’s ability to count calories. Artificial sweeteners like aspartame, when combined with said diet product, mess up the brain’s chemistry and stimulate appetite. Result: more eating, and more weight gain.

In addition, the Ramazzini Foundation released a three-year study confirming the link between aspartame and leukemia. The researchers have concluded that even a low dose (20 milligrams of aspartame per kilogram of body weight) increases the development of lymphomas, leukemia, and uritogenital tumors in rats. By the way, 50 milligrams per kilo represents the current daily acceptable dose of aspartame.

Board-certified neurologists, prominent geneticists, cardiologists, biochemists, histologists and toxicologists from different corners of the world have all drawn the same conclusion: aspartame is an addictive carcinogenic neurotoxin and teratogen, and while it may be a great biochemical warfare agent, as previously classified by the Pentagon, it should certainly be kept out of our Coke. And anything else we consume, really.

2. Bisphenol A

bpa-cans

Bisphenol A (BPA) is described as a gender-bending chemical because it mimics estrogen, binding to the same receptors in a body as natural female hormones do. Bisphenol A is also used to make polycarbonate plastics and line tin cans. And yes, it’s in Coke.

Canada became the first jurisdiction in the world to declare BPA a toxic substance and the French Senate unanimously decided to suspend from January 2015 the manufacture, import and export of all food and beverage containers which include the synthetic hormone.

The World Health Organization said there was “very strong evidence” in animals that endocrine-disrupting chemicals like BPA can interfere with thyroid hormones. This dangerous interaction could cause brain damage, autism, decrease intelligence and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. In addition, various studies have linked BPA exposure to obesity, neurological issues, breast cancer, prostate cancer, DNA methylation, reproductive system malfunctions, and birth defects.

Coca-Cola is under a lot of pressure to do something about this, after 26% of its shareholders demanded more information on how the company is addressing the risk of BPA. Thus far, they’ve rejected the call.

1. High Fructose Corn Syrup

homer-corn-syrup

High fructose corn syrup was introduced to the American market in 1967, and its consumption has exploded ever since. It is the main ingredient in Coca Cola, with over 18 cubes of the stuff per liter. This is … not a good thing.

Food safety agencies from all over the world classified high fructose corn syrup as safe, and no different from regular old cane sugar. Problem is, both HFCS and cane sugar can be dangerous, especially when consumed in high doses (which Coca-Cola’s marketing team obviously wants to be the case.) A research team from Princeton University has demonstrated that the long-term consumption of HFCS leads to weight gain, abnormal increases in body fat, and a rise in triglycerides. These are well-known risk factors for diabetes, cancer, high blood pressure, and coronary artery disease.

To preserve the health of its people, Venezuela banned Coca-Cola because the so-called “liquid candy” was simply too unhealthy. As delicious and refreshing as Coke can be, perhaps it’s time other nations considered the same.

Coca-Cola, What’s in it?