Things That Kill, Not All from China – WIF Lists

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Urban Hazards

That Could

Kill You

The urban environment can be scary. While the dangers of the outdoors and wilderness survival are well publicized, city planners, businesses and the public alike struggle with how to mitigate the dangers with which the urban environment is fraught. Let us now explore the chilling survival dangers that may face us vulnerable humans in the wild, wild world that is the city. Eerily, some of the worst hazards come from attempts at charity, efficiency, or green innovation.

10. Monster Icicles

It is less well known than it should be that urban environments juxtapose walking areas for pedestrians with perfect places for icicles to drop from great heights. This can be deadly. In cities with cold winter climates, sufficient precipitation and the presence of tall buildings, such as St. Petersburg, Russia or New York, USA, a perfect storm exists that has, tragically, caused numerous injuries and in some cities, repeated fatalities. Environmental sustainability measures centered on making buildings more energy efficient have perversely created increased danger to the public in certain cases.

A 2010 article in the International Journal on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat describes how buildings built to be energy efficient (or renovated to be energy efficient) release less heat, saving energy but dramatically increasing the accumulation of potentially dangerous ice formations on the outside of skyscrapers. When temperatures rise, ice chunks fall to the city streets below. Icicles forming as water drips down the edges of buildings has caused tragic deaths, most notably in St. Petersburg, Russia where in a single year (2010) a shocking five people died and 150 were injured after being hit by huge falling icicles or ice chunks. Senseless carnage! Novosibirsk, the third most populated city in Russia, also saw a cold tragedy toward winter’s end in 2015 when a 20-year-old woman was killed by ice falling 14 stories from a canopy. Blame has been placed on officials for failing to ensure dangerous ice was removed.

9. Killer Dumpsters

Dumpster diving is a popular activity for the homeless, those trying to save a few dollars, or certain “freegans” trying to make a political or economic statement about thrown away food. Yet another kind of dumpster diving (for dumpster contents that are not garbage) have claimed several lives, prompting calls for a ban. These are the clothing donation bins that have caused seven deaths Canada-wide since 2015. The complicated mechanism of these bins, designed to prevent theft can crush people between metal plates aided by their own body weight as they reach into the bins in an attempt to retrieve clothing.

The problem is worst in Canada, for reasons still in question, but deaths have occurred elsewhere globally but in fewer numbers. People have been found dead in clothing donation bins, while in other cases, screams were heard but the victim died of crushing and suffocation before they could be helped. For example, help came too late to save one woman whose vehicle was still running beside a bin that she entered at night, only to get caught up and be left hanging from broken limbs. Efforts to curb the deaths include outright bans or voluntary removals of bins in certain jurisdictions, along with engineering team efforts to design a safer system.

8. Stray Bullet Strikes

Stray bullets can arise from surprising sources and travel in the strangest trajectories, killing people in cities who had nothing to do with either celebrations, gang violence, or warfare. Bullets travel farther than people commonly understand, less accurately than often believed, and can ricochet or achieve a lethal potential falling in an arc after being fired into the air. A growing number of people in the United States have lost their lives when a bullet entered their home or hit them in the street. Just one Baltimore street saw a three-year-old killed and then a nine-year-old girl injured by stray bullets in two separate incidents. These cases of accidental urban shootings are examples of a growing problem. Between March 2008 and February 2009, over 300 people were hit by stray bullets in the United States.

A variety of demographics were represented in an analysis of those hit, and those who were identified as responsible in stray bullet cases. Shockingly, children formed 30 percent of the victims. The urban threat is not primarily a street issue, as 68 percent of victims were struck indoors, including 40 percent being accidentally shot in their own homes. There is also an urgent need to stop the celebratory firing of live rounds at events such as New Years around the world. Senseless fatalities, such as the 2014 deaths of two children in the Philippines when bullets fired to celebrate New Years struck them in their home, serve as an example.

7. Airplane Crashes

Urban airplane crashes kill more people than you would think. Look out: the sky is not falling, but its contents just might. We might think of aircraft travel as safe, but when accidents happen, they are notably catastrophic a lot of the time. Furthermore, those on the ground are at risk, especially in cities. Tall buildings present easily struck obstacles, while lower buildings and roads may be hit if a runway is missed. Global aviation disaster records show around 200 crashes that caused fatalities on the ground. The single worst ground fatality event in aviation history resulting from an accident was the crash of an Air Africa Antonov-An-32B into a street market in the Democratic Republic of Congo that killed at least 225 and injured.

In 1992, a notable disaster took place when approximately 100 people in an apartment building in Amsterdam lost their lives as an airliner flew into the building, causing an immense fireball. Terrorism caused the most serious incidents, the 9/11 terrorist attacks killing more than 2,500 people on the ground. Large aircraft are also known to shed heavy parts, but a more common danger comes from small planes crashing in suburbs, such as one recent case in Southern California where four people in a house died when an 8-seater Cessna broke up in mid-air and caused the house to explode into a fiery mass upon impact.

6. Accidental Drug Exposures

The use of illegal “recreational” drugs presents significant risks to users. However, as prohibited street drugs get more potent and deadly, the potential for collateral damage in urban areas to non-users rises. The appearance of fentanyl as an illegal substance often used to cut less potent drugs poses an extreme threat to law enforcement and the public. An increasingly abused substance on the streets that is of medical origin, fentanyl often comes in a fine powder. If inhaled, even a tiny amount of this drug (that is around 50 times stronger than most forms of heroin) may dangerously inhibit respiratory function, easily causing death. In one case, first responders assisting an overdose victim themselves experienced symptoms of an overdose, prompting emergency management authorities to highlight the risks of accidental exposure.

If this was not enough, another substance originating from fentanyl, carfentanil, is around 100 times more potent than regular fentanyl. Terrifying! In addition to the growing threat caused by these rogue opioids proliferating in world cities, drug use poses other threats. Discarded needles are becoming ubiquitous, showing up in garbage cans, at bus stops, and in playgrounds, parks, and even townhouse common grounds. Accidental sticking with discarded needles may lead to exposure to bloodborne diseases if accidentally touched in a way that the skin of the unwitting handler is broken. Means of exposure include handling garbage, walking in grass, or picking up clothing in which a needle is present.

5. Extreme Smog

Major urban centres like Los Angeles, Beijing, and London continue to provoke health conditions and contain significant quantities of toxic smog. Extreme incidents involving smog have marked some of the low points of urban history, the London Killer Fog of 1952 being one of the most notorious examples.  The fog only lasted five days, but the chemical reaction between sulfur dioxide, natural fog, and nitrogen dioxide, creating highly corrosive sulfuric acid fumes in the city. Poisoned badly, 12,000 people died, while 150,000 were so sick they required hospitalization. By 1956, the Clean Air Act was passed to get control of the deadly risks of urban coal burning.

Despite the improvements, London today still has air that has become comparable to New Delhi or Beijing, two large cities known for their frequent air quality advisories. London’s problem with nitrogen dioxide continues, exacerbated by sunlight, which produces ozone pollution. Cities such as New Delhi, however, suffer from worse particulate pollution, yet the levels of potentially life-shortening nitrogen dioxide in London are significantly worse than conditions in a city as large as New York, putting a strain on health services. Air pollution in China causes around 1.1 million premature deaths annually, part of a constellation of problems that prompted Premier of the State Council Li Keqiang to declare “war on pollution” in China, with the intention of “making our skies blue again.” Efforts are focused on reducing steel production and coal-fired energy generation, which are key polluters.

4. Freak Urban Floods

Cities are often built in low-lying areas, while the removal of vegetation and construction beside watercourses in urban areas exacerbates flooding. Urban floods are especially dangerous due to the presence of electrical wires, with electrocution a noteworthy result of certain urban floods. Even in areas that might be thought of as being more dry, flash floods can pose an extraordinary risk in urban locales. In the large Saudi Arabian city Jeddah, 2009 and 2011 saw floods roar through the desert city, killing over 100 people. A lack of proper drainage and flood absorbing vegetation presents a challenge that must be addressed through better installation of natural infrastructure such as constructed wetlands and drains to slow and absorb floodwaters.

Furthermore, urban industry poses the threat of some very strange floods. Eight deaths resulted when thousands of gallons of beer were accidentally released into the streets in the “London Beer Flood” of 1814, while the “Great Boston Molasses Flood” in the United States in 1919 killed 21 people and injured 150, when a huge tank full of molasses broke and let out a wave of molasses 15 feet tall that rushed through streets and buildings, creating a half mile long swathe of destruction and death as people were trapped and drowned in the sticky substance.

3. Infrastructure Failures

We typically trust bridges, power pylons, overpasses, and roads to be well constructed. But a surprising number of deaths take place in cities around the world when the stress of everyday use does not match up to engineering projections and design provisions. Infrastructure collapses in developing countries or political jurisdictions without sufficient engineering codes are expected, but it may surprise people how many disasters have occurred in jurisdictions where infrastructure is thought to be quality and safe.

Between 1989 and 2000, more than 500 bridge failure disasters occurred in the United States! It is often not the result of an earthquakes, but floods or the negligence of a single motorist colliding with critical bridge support structures that sets off a collapse. Other times, engineering mistakes fail to take into account the enormous cumulative load from traffic, settling, and torsion or settling forces, leading to gradual failure or a sudden, catastrophic collapse. Collapses of overpasses above traffic are also some of the worst types of infrastructure collapse risks in cities. So, when you are traveling on a bridge, or below underpasses, you might want to think about the merits of not getting stuck under an overpass or on a bridge that possibly leads nowhere.

2. Asbestos Exposure

Urban exploring, where enthusiasts often illicitly traverse old factories, office towers, and tunnels, enjoys popularity but it can be very risky due to the chance of encountering asbestos. Asbestos, once welcomed as a problem solving “wonder material” with its fireproof insulator properties, is proof that the worst hazards are not always man-made, but natural in origin. Massive quantities of asbestos were once incorporated into urban structures of all kinds. Asbestos formed of minute, dangerous fibers can get into the lungs, where they cause serious inflammation and, eventually, lung cancer.

In the urban environment, almost any older building could be a dangerous storehouse of asbestos fibers. Even careful acts of urban exploration may cause ceilings, walls, stairwells, or old insulation panels to give way, releasing asbestos. No wonder asbestos exposure constitutes the number one threat to the urban explorer, according to Jason Robinson, who founded the Ohio Exploration Society. Not only urban explorers, but renovators and construction workers are confounded by the asbestos threat. Many urban construction projects have the potential to unleash massive quantities of asbestos when past construction work is disturbed. Dealing with asbestos is a liability but also a significant business activity, with workers suiting up until they resemble astronauts in a bid to get rid of the danger.

1. Gas Leaks & Carbon Monoxide

Colorless, odorless, and hard to notice, carbon monoxide remains an insidious and quick killer responsible for numerous deaths from small and large scale equipment failures and also installation mistakes. The substance is a dangerous, but formed of two completely harmless substances that make up your food, your body, and the air around you, albeit in a different molecular order. One molecule of carbon binds to one molecule of oxygen in a byproduct of certain combustion reactions, but the danger is much greater than the sum of the parts. Carbon monoxide is capable of physically replacing the oxygen in your bloodstream.

While taking the place of oxygen, this impostor chemical fails to provide the life sustaining support that oxygen lends. Eerily, the chemical has no taste, smell or color and is often not detected until death results, particularly if the victim is asleep. Many deaths have resulted from blocked chimneys, use of fuel burning machines indoors, or leaving a car running in an enclosed space. A number of deaths result every year, while lower levels of poisoning that cause headaches, nausea, and dizziness — or even seizures — may be misdiagnosed. Maintenance of equipment and avoidance of unsafe practices, followed by installation of monitors, are key ways to avoid fatal incidents.


Things That Kill,

Not All from China

WIF Lists

The Placebo Effect – Mind Over Matter

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placebo-effect

10 Facts About

the Placebo Effect

The placebo effect happens when someone is given a pill, a shot, or some other form of treatment, and are told it will help with their ailments. They feel better, but it’s just their mind and body healing itself because the treatment is essentially fake. Researchers are very interested as to why it works, because understanding it will help with patient care and decrease the amount of drugs that need to be prescribed.

10. It Was Discovered to Protect Consumers

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The first test for the placebo effect took place in the late 18th century after a Connecticut doctor named Elisha Perkins was granted a patent for medical devices he called “tractors.” Perkins’ tractors were wand-like pieces of metal about three inches long. He claimed that they were made of special materials, but they were really just steel and brass. Perkins said that his tractors could help with sore joint and other aches and pains — he charged an enormous amount of money to run his tractors over the sore spot for about 20 minutes, and people claimed they felt better afterwards.

Other physicians were dubious about the powers of tractors, so a British doctor named John Haygarth performed tests with different materials like bone, a slate pencil and a tobacco pipe. He found that he could get similar results, and he concluded that any improvement the patient felt was just in the patient’s head.

9. It Has Physical and Psychological Responses

Dental Scan

The placebo effect may seem like something that’s solely psychological, but there’s strong evidence that your body physically reacts to it. In 2005, researchers at the University of Michigan performed PET scans on 14 healthy young men. Their jaws were injected with a saltwater solution to cause pain. A short time later, they were given a placebo and told that medicine was on its way. On the scans, researchers saw that the area of the brain that releases endorphins was active after the placebo was given. The participants also claimed they felt less pain, and their tolerance for pain went up.

A study published in 2001 gave participants a placebo mixed with drugs that blocked endorphins. The result was no placebo effect. While research is still being conducted, these two studies show that endorphins may have a big role to play in making placebos effective.

8. The Bigger the Production, the Bigger the Effect

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If someone is sick and needs treatment, one of the quickest and most effective ways to treat them is through an injection. That made researchers wonder — if pills gave a placebo effect, would a placebo injection be even more effective?Between 1956 and 1965, and then again in 2000 and 2006, there were tests that compared people who received placebo shots and people who were given sugar pills. In all of the studies, they found that when using a medical device such as a needle to give injections the subjects had greater improvements than the people who took the placebo orally. It speaks to the power of the placebo effect that symbols like needles, which are tied to treatment and cures for diseases, play such an important role.

7. Fertility Can Be Affected

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Even fertility can be affected by the placebo effect. In one study, a group of 55 women that had polycystic ovarian syndrome were trying to get pregnant. Over the course of six months, 33 of the participants were given a placebo and 32 were given fertility drugs. Out of the placebo group, five of the 33 women got pregnant, while seven of the 32 women receiving the drugs were able to get pregnant, making the difference statistically insignificant. In other tests, the pregnancy rate is as high as 40% while taking a placebo. Researchers believe that the women in these tests were less stressed, making them more likely to get pregnant.

6. Placebos Can Negate the Effect of Drugs

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In most placebo tests, they look to see if a fake drug or treatment can help someone. However, it can also have the opposite effect and suppress the ability of actual drugs if the person isn’t expecting them to do anything. Researchers in Germany and the United Kingdom looked at brain scans of people who were given painkillers — half the group was told they’d be given strong painkillers, while others were just told they’d be given a placebo. They found that people who were told they’d be given the painkillers had signs of relief, while those who thought they were taking a placebo had the effectiveness of the drugscompletely eliminated. Positive thinking helps, but expectations are important as well.

5. Price of Treatment Effects Results

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Researchers at the University of Cincinnati performed a test on 12 people with moderately advanced Parkinson’s. They gave each of them a placebo and told them that they were effective for the treatment of Parkinson’s, but some were told their pills were 15 times more expensive to make than the alternative. Those who received the “expensive” placebo showed a greater improvement than people who took the “cheaper” placebo. In another test, 67% of the participants had improvement from the expensive placebo, while 58% said they felt better after taking the cheap placebo. These tests show how much our expectations play into medical treatment. If someone’s medication costs more, they have higher expectations for it to work.

4. Brand Names Affect Results

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The perceived cost isn’t the only thing that changes how well a placebo works. Studies have shown that people believe brand name drugs are more effective than generic drugs, even though both drugs are identical in every aspect except for name, color, shape and size.

Brand name drugs are much more expensive because pharmaceutical companies put a lot of money into research, development and marketing. A generic drug is released after the patent runs out, which is 15 years after regulators approve it. So while prescribing brand names after that period is an incredible waste of money for insurance companies and patients alike, they’re more effective simply because people think they’ll be. They’re not inherently superior, but we have a tendency to connect brand names to quality.

3. Placebos Work Better Than Ever Before

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Researchers have found that the placebo effect is getting more powerful,especially in studies that involve antidepressants, anti-anxiety agents and pain relievers. This strange phenomenon has been a problem for pharmaceutical firms, because it makes it more difficult to get drugs approved by the FDA. One theory is that people now have more faith in doctors and pharmaceuticals.During studies for drugs, participants get one-on-one attention from the doctors who prescribe them medication. Just visiting a doctor has therapeutic powers, and then they prescribe drugs that the participants expect to work. Our expectations have been raised, making placebos more effective in an almost cyclical relationship.

2. It Can Still Work Even If You Know

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Even when people know they’re taking a placebo, the treatment can still be effective if they expect it to be. Researchers at Harvard performed a study on 80 patients who suffered from irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Half of them didn’t take anything, and the other half took placebo pills. They were plainly told that they were “placebo pills made of an inert substance, like sugar pills, that have been shown in clinical studies to produce significant improvement in IBS-symptoms through mind-body self-healing processes” (note the difference from entry six, where patients were explicitly told that the placebos didn’t work). They even printed Placebo on the bottle.

By the end of the test, about twice as many people in the placebo group felt better than the control group. Amazingly, the known placebos worked as well as some of the strongest IBS medication.

1. Placebo Surgery is Effective

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It’s one thing to take a pill or receive a shot as a placebo, but surgery is another matter. A surgery physically changes someone, but crazily enough a number of different studies have shown that people feel better and start to heal after placebo surgeries. In Finland, surgeons had patients come in to have surgery to repair torn cartilage. Half the patients received the surgery. The other half were anesthetized, then the doctors cut them open and pretended to perform the surgery, going through all the same motions but not actually operating. Amazingly, both groups improved.

Another study found this worked on people with broken vertebrae. Half of the test subjects would go in for vertebroplasty, which would reconstruct the vertebrae, while the other half was given a placebo surgery. In two different trials, they found the placebo surgery worked just as well as the real surgery. There are still a lot of questions about how placebo surgeries work, but the implications are staggering.

 

The Placebo Effect

– Mind Over Matter