FYI NSA BTW – WIF Invasion of Privacy

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Intrusive Programs

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the NSA

Before Edward Snowden revealed us an unprecedented amount of the National Security Agency’s activities in 2013, most of us were only vaguely familiar with the shadowy organization and its information-gathering ways. The NSA has its tendrils in virtually every digital aspect of our daily life, to the point that one of their automated information-collecting programs is probably reading this right now (Hi!) and trying to figure out whether we’re a threat to national security (We really aren’t!).

While reports of their current activities are understandably few and far between, thanks to Mr. Snowden and his leaked documents we do have some insight into the things the NSA were up to in 2013 and before that … and it’s not pretty. Here’s a look at some of the agency’s strangest antics.

10. Angry Birds

No, it’s not just a fun code name, or, for that matter, even code name. It’s that Angry Birds.

In 2014, the Guardian reported that the NSA, along with its significantly less catchy British counterpart GCHQ, were looking into various techniques where they can sneak all up the “leaks” of your favorite phone apps, up to and very much including the world’s premier “Birds Vs. Pigs” game. The idea was to slip through the security cracks of the apps in order to reach the users’ personal data, which would provide the agencies with a number of significant advantages. They would gain access to a huge amount of the kind of data that would allow them to exploit people’s phone information on a mass scale, instead of just having to hack their way into our phones one by one like some commoner. Location, as well: When you use Google Maps to find a place, the NSA can use it to find you.

The NSA seems to put great value on such technology, to the point where one 2010 presentation called it a “Golden Nugget” before rattling off a long list of information the agency could gather from just a single picture uploaded on social media. Fortunately, this plan was among the documents Edward Snowden leaked in 2013, so at least we’re aware that some of America’s taxpayer dollars go towards surreptitiously scrolling through your contact lists as you play Candy Crush or whatever.

9. Boundless Informant

Congress has occasionally challenged the NSA about what they do with all the data they collect from American citizens. One of the agency’s go-to defenses has been that they have no way of keeping track of the waves of information crashing on their shores, but in 2013, it turned out that a secretive agency might, in fact, have been lying about its methods. It’s shocking, we know.

Congress has occasionally challenged the NSA about what they do with all the data they collect from American citizens. One of the agency’s go-to defenses has been that they have no way of keeping track of the waves of information crashing on their shores, but in 2013, it turned out that a secretive agency might, in fact, have been lying about its methods. It’s shocking, we know.

Boundless Informant is a highly sophisticated data mining tool the NSA uses to analyze and record its surveillance information. It’s essentially a hyper-competent archivist that sifts through the sea of data and arranges it to neat folders. However, it doesn’t appear to do it by user — unless they decide to take a personal interest in you, Boundless Informant probably doesn’t have a folder of your most embarrassing emails and IMs. Instead, the system sifts through the incoming information by “counting and categorizing” the communications records metadata (sets of data that describe other data). However, the level of detail it goes to even includes individual IP addresses … which, as you may know, can totally be tracked down to the countries they’re from.

8. Dishfire

SMS texting is slowly but steadily going the way of the dodo as instant messaging platforms are taking over, but the NSA has been collecting them like they were coming back in fashion. According to the 2013 data leak, the Dishfire program performs a daily, global and supposedly untargeted sweep of SMS messages, and took them to a second program called Prefer, which automatically analyzed them for assorted red flags.

The agency was head over heels about this particular avenue of information collection, to the point where a 2011 presentation was titled “SMS Text Messages: A Goldmine to Exploit.” They weren’t exactly wrong, either: automated messages, international roaming charge texts, missed call alerts, electronic business cards and text-to-text payments gave them access to unprecedentedly clear metadata in ridiculous droves.

To put the scale of the operations in context, at the time of the leaks the NSA was able to collect over five million missed-call alerts (for contact chaining analysis), Around 800,000 money transactions, 1.6 million border crossings, over 110,000 names, 76,000 people’s real-time locations, and a total of nearly 200 million SMS messages. Per day. 

7. Egoistical Goat and its friends

The anonymous Tor network is obviously a bit of a problem for an information-gathering entity like the NSA, but it appears the agency had already made some progress to lift the veil of secrecy as early as in 2013.

To crack down Tor’s information safe, the agency created a number of programs with increasingly stupid names, all lovingly crafted to compromise Tor user anonymity. There was Egoistical Goat and its sister programs Egoistical Giraffe and Erroneous Identity, which tried to worm their way in the Firefox parts of the Tor Bundles in order to identify users. Before them, the NSA had Mjoliner, which was meant to divert Tor users to insecure channels, and a marking operation called Mullenize, which was the online equivalent of a surveillance helicopter trying to shoot a tracking device in a car before it drives in a hidden tunnel. Meanwhile, NSA’s British version, GCHQ, did its level best to outdo its American counterpart’s ridiculous code names by trying to crack Tor with operations called Epicfail and Onionbreath.

Despite all their antics, the NSA’s success rate at identifying Tor users was spotty at best — but really, who knows what they have come up with since 2013?

6. GILGAMESH

It’s one thing for the NSA to want to know about people’s information, and completely another to use that information to find out your location and giving it to the Joint Security Operations Command in case they need to bomb someone. This explosive application of NSA tracking technology is called GILGAMESH, and it’s essentially what would happen if a bunch of NSA’s geolocation tracking technologies married a Predator drone.

Thanks to the vast array of online information available to them, the NSA has taken to recommending drone targets with complex metadata analysis instead of relying on human intelligence. However, the Intercept points out that while the tactic has had some success it has by no means been particularly accurate and reliable. One drone pilot operating with NSA-dictated targets has admitted it “absolutely” has resulted in innocent people getting killed.

5. Optic Nerve

To be fair, Optic Nerve was technically a brainchild of the British GCHQ, but since they NSA happily assisted in it, we’ll let it slide. It was a code-name for a surveillance program that surreptitiously collected a bunch of images from Yahoo’s webcam chats from all over the world by the million, with little to no regard whether the people they were collecting them from were persons of interest or not.  This might be pretty creepy in and of itself, but becomes doubly so when you remember the sort of stuff that tends to go on in webcam chats. Yes, we’re talking about nudity, and judging by the scale of the operation, there must have been plenty of it, too. In fact, leaked documents reveal that the GCHQ actually had some trouble keeping all the naked pictures away from the interested eyes of its employees, which in a way is even scarier than just stealing images in bulk.

Understandably, Yahoo was less than thrilled to find out about the situation, which they say happened only when the British media reached out to ask some questions. The company called Optic Nerve a “whole new level of violation of our users’ privacy,” and really, it’s hard to argue with them.

4. PRISM

PRISM is massive surveillance program that started in 2007 and came into light when the Washington Post and the Guardian whipped out a pile of leaked documents in 2013. Technically, PRISM was/is a system for monitoring foreign communication passing through American servers. However, in practice, they monitored everything they humanly could, and gathered their data from “providers” that you might be familiar with.

As of 2013, tiny little companies like Google, Microsoft, Apple, Facebook, Yahoo, Skype and the like had to hand the NSA remarkable access to their servers, and the vast buckets of data from their users that lays within. NSA can use this giant pool of information to a terrifying accuracy, to the point where they could just directly access your — yes, specifically your — information and spy on every little thing you do online. The only caveat is that some analyst in their machinery has to vouch that they’re, like, 51% sure that you’re probably foreign, maybe.

3. Upstream

If you thought the NSA was happy just spying what you do on the internet, worry not — there’s more to come. Upstream is basically the same deal as PRISM, only with telecommunications companies such as Verizon and AT&T … and in a much more classic “spying” capacity. Where PRISM relies on intangible tech shenanigans of the “access to big company servers” variety, project Upstream has physically installed a host of surveillance equipment to the internet’s physical “backbone”: the routers, cables and other gear that carry all the online traffic.

The NSA uses this infiltration to track down specific keywords related to potential foreign intelligence activity, though even this noble-ish intent is rendered moot by the fact that they also often target the media, legal attorneys and human rights people instead of just supposed spies and suspected terrorists. The American Civil Rights Union has called the practice “unprecedented and unlawful.”

2. Bullrun

What good is stealing data from countless unwary people if you don’t know what to do with it? The NSA answered this question with code-name Bullrun, a state-of-the-art decryption program that can straight up decode the encryption used by several prominent providers, which means they can read your emails with the greatest of ease should the need arise. This powerful Sigint (signals intelligence) weapon is built by stealthily working with large tech companies to install weaknesses in their products, and then exploiting these openings with their own decryption tools. This way, the NSA and its British counterpart GCHQ are able to browse through not only their targets’ emails, but banking accounts and medical history as well. Essentially, if you have personal information online, Bullrun can find out how to decrypt it.

Bullrun’s importance to the NSA can easily be seen by looking at its budget: When Edward Snowden brought the system out in the open in 2013, PRISM’s operating costs were around $20 million a year. Bullrun? Over $250 million.

1. FASCIA

The FASCIA database was among the more interesting documents Edwards Snowden leaked. It was a massive collection of metadata, consisting of all sorts of call information, IP addresses and suchlike. What made the project so impressive(ly scary) was its sheer scale: Though the document dates back to January 2004, it said that FASCIA II had over 85 billion metadata records, and an estimated 125 million were added on a daily basis. Leaked graphs (like the one above) indicate that the system has since evolved, and in 2012, FASCIA already received five billion device-location records every day. There’s no telling what that number is now, but smart money would probably say that it’s significantly larger.

The NSA started getting hold of all this metadata during the War on Terror by straight up forcing phone companies to hand it over to the agency. Originally, this data included pretty intimate stuff, such as the numbers you called and the duration of said calls, though not the actual content. In 2015, the process was slightly changed so that the NSA could only collect bulk metadata and looking at an individual person’s records would require a court order. Even so, the NSA has been known to call this system one of their “most useful tools,” and they say it has even helped them capture multiple terror suspects.


FYI NSA BTW –

WIF Invasion of Privacy

The Cloak of Secrecy – WIF Government Confidential

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Leaked or Declassified

Government Secrets

We were going to put together a list of “things the government could be hiding from you,” as a kind of sober take on some of the more plausible conspiracy theories. But, having already done a list of things they actually hid from us, it would have been an underwhelming follow-up.

And for no good reason! There are plenty more disturbing and/or bizarre secrets our governments would have preferred to keep quiet.

10. Project Horizon

Back in the late 1950s, the US was lagging behind in the space race. In 1957, for example, the Soviets launched Sputnik—the first manmade satellite—into orbit, and Eisenhower’s America was crestfallen. Of course, it didn’t help that many now saw the US as basically defenseless against a Russian nuclear strike.

Their response? They made plans to fire a nuke at the moon.

It’s easy to see this as a kind of geopolitical temper tantrum, a toddler throwing his toys at the wall, but for the Air Force it was a “P.R. device.” Above all, it was a way “to impress the world with the prowess of the United States.” The flash of the detonation would be visible from Earth, said the experts, and, because of the negligible lunar atmosphere, the dust would fly off in all directions (as opposed to the usual mushroom cloud shape). It would also leave a gaping lunar crater, forever changing the face of the Moon.

Ultimately, the plan was shelved. But only when they came up with a “better” one. Documents declassified in 2014 revealed plans to build a base on the Moon. Outpost Horizon was to be a permanent, nuclear-powered, and completely self-sustaining installation, constructed by its inhabitants beneath the lunar surface. It would have air locks, living quarters, dining and rec rooms, a hospital, science labs and storage for explosives. It was, in other words, dangerously ahead of its time.

The 12 men expected to live up there by 1965 were to drink their own urine, grow plants in their poop, and look after chickens and fish. And, if anyone lost their mind, there was a solitary confinement room “for the complete isolation of psychiatric patients.”

The plan was finally abandoned when NASA took over the space program.

9. Acoustic Kitty

From missile-guiding pigeons to mine-detecting dolphins, animals have long been co-opted for war. As retrograde as it sounds now, behavioral conditioning to this end was at the forefront of  of military research back in the 1960s.

The I.Q. Zoo in Hot Springs, Arkansas was basically a front for such studies. On the one hand, it was a quirky visitor attraction—a place for the public to watch pigs playing the piano, chickens playing baseball, macaws riding bicycles, and reindeer operating a printing press (etc.). But on the other, it was a top secret facility for training animal spies—bug-planting ravens, mine-locating dogs, and the so-called Acoustic Kitty.

The idea for the latter was hatched while visually surveilling a target. Since cats could be seen freely wandering in and out of the target’s strategy sessions, the CIA thought of bugging one to listen in. But simply attaching a microphone wouldn’t do. Instead, researchers transformed a living cat into a $20 million radio transmitter. They ran a wire through the ear canal to instruments inside the rib cage and spiraled a super-thin antenna around the kitty’s tail. Using ultrasound cues, they could also direct the cat’s movements left, right, and straight on.

We don’t know if it was ever deployed. The fate of the project is murky. Some say the Acoustic Kitty was flattened by a taxi just seconds into its very first field test. Others say the implants were removed and the kitty lived a long and happy life. The CIA refuses to comment, although one declassified document does appear to suggest the impractical project was canceled.

Anyway, now that we can eavesdrop with lasers, it’s likely to be a thing of the past.

8. Mapimí Silent Zone

Usually when a country fires upon another, it’s considered an act of war. But America’s long-suffering neighbor to the south has been known to let it slide. On July 11, 1970, an ATHENA V-123-D rocket was fired at New Mexico’s White Sands Missile Range, but it overshot the target and landed near old Mexico’s Bolsón de Mapimí instead—an important ecosystem 200 miles south of the border.

The clean-up operation (with the help of the Mexicans) was huge, requiring a brand new road just to get vehicles to the blast zone. Hundreds of tons of cobalt-57-contaminated soil were removed, the radioactive isotope having been added to the bomb to maximize fallout and civilian casualties.

Fortunately, the site had few if any humans. But the bomb could have hit just about anywhere. In a memo sent to Nixon, National Security Advisor Henry Kissinger made it out to be an unforeseen blunder—attributable to the missile’s “abnormal re-entry into the atmosphere.” However, the ATHENA program had already been suspended in July 1968 following three consecutive flight failures. And funding had been slashed between 1966 and 1969, forcing the Air Force to cut corners with design. Although officials involved in the program expressed safety concerns, they presumptuously reasoned that “the public is willing to accept some risk if such tests appear necessary in the national interest.”Far from an unforeseen blunder, the military allowed for such incidents; it expected them.

Nowadays, the blast site is known as the Mapimí Silent Zone, or sometimes as the “Mexican Bermuda Triangle.” And it may be no coincidence that its renown as a UFO hotspot outweighs any memory of American hubris.

7. 1968 Thule Air Base B-52 crash

In our last list on this topic, we mentioned the 1961 Goldsboro B-52 crash, a potentially apocalyptic “nuclear mishap” that you would’ve thought America had learned from. Unfortunately not. Almost seven years later to the day, on January 21, 1968, another nuclear-armed bomber hit the dust (or snow, as it happens), this time on overseas territory.

The aircraft has been circling Thule Air Base in northern Greenland as part of Operation Chrome Dome. (These missions kept bombers on continuous airborne alert between 1960 and 1968, each of them on standby to go and annihilate Moscow.) When a fire broke out in the navigator’s compartment, however, the plane lost electrical power and slammed into the ground just seven miles away from the base. Actually, it slammed through the ground, blasting through the ice into North Star Bay at a speed of 500 knots. Six of the crew of seven ejected and the aircraft was destroyed upon impact. Whatever was left was consumed by the fires of 200,000 pounds of jet fuel. The casings of its four 1.1-megaton H-bombs were also destroyed, scattering tiny fragments of highly radioactive tritium and plutonium across the crash site.

A major clean-up operation followed, involving scientists from Denmark and more than 70 federal agencies. And, while the major general in charge downplayed the extent of contamination, framing the incident as an “exciting” and “classic example of international cooperation,” many of those involved suffered ailments later on. Over the subsequent decades, hundreds of them contracted cancers and, of 500 Danes studied, only 20 were able to have children—several of which were born with deformities.

The US didn’t even have express permission to be flying nukes over Danish territory—much less deploying them on the ground (as documents declassified in the ’90s show they did).

But did the Air Force finally learn its lesson?

Kind of. Nuclear weapons were removed from all planes on airborne alert in the immediate aftermath of the incident. After all, it wasn’t just Goldsboro and Thule; there had been eight other nuclear-armed crashes. More recently, however, there has been talk of a return to Chrome Dome-style strategy.

6. 1953 Iranian coup d’état

Historically, the US and UK have controlled oil supplies in the Middle East. The Arabian-American Oil Company owned Saudi Arabia’s and the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company (now BP) owned Iran’s. But all that changed in 1950.

When the US finally gave in to pressure to start sharing revenue with the locals, Iran expected Britain to follow suit. And when it didn’t, the Iranian PM Mohammad Mossadegh simply nationalized his country’s oil industry—depriving the UK of any share and securing (or so he thought) crucial funding for his program of liberal reforms.

In response, Britain conspired with the US to overthrow Mossadegh—the closest Iran has ever come to a truly democratic and socialist leader, and one who intended to abolish the monarchy. Although he saw the first attack coming and arrested those involved, the coup against him was ultimately successful. The status quo was restored and BP got a share of the oil. But such blatant interference by the US and UK earned them the nickname “the Great Satan.” And their 1953 coup d’état paved the way for the 1979 Islamic Revolution—the devastating transformation of a once progressive nation into the fundamentalist nightmare we see today.

5. British Governmental Pedophiles

In November 2014, London’s Metropolitan Police finally agreed to investigate historical claims of child sex abuse at the highest levels of government (and, more famously, in the media). These claims are mostly concentrated on the 1970s and ’80s—at a time when senior police officers and politicians, including Margaret Thatcher, are alleged to have blocked all inquiries. But the evidence has piled up in the shadows.

According to a prominent Member of Parliament (MP) in 2012, there is “clear intelligence suggesting a powerful paedophile network linked to parliament and No 10.”Indeed, one senior lawyer claims to have seen records of government funding for the Paedophile Information Exchange—a pro-pedophile activist group—during the 1970s.

Allegations from the victims are even more harrowing. Survivors claim to have been trafficked via care homes into violent orgies with high-ranking defense and intelligence officials, MPs, and others within the British establishment. Even former Prime Minister Ted Heath has been implicated. Allegedly a number of children were killed. One twelve-year-old boy was raped and strangled by a Conservative MP, says a witness, and another boy, a ten-year-old, was deliberately run over by a car. This was apparently a display of his rapist’s legal immunity.

Of course, much of this has yet to be proven. But declassified documents do suggest that investigations were blocked. And, while the Metropolitan Police have attempted to dismiss the claims, the Crown Prosecution Service admitted in 2015 there was enough evidence to prosecute at least one of the accused: Lord Greville Janner. But they refused to do so. Citing his “severe dementia” and advanced age of 86, they argued that it wouldn’t be “in the public interest.” This is ironic given that Janner himself had, back in 1997, criticized the British justice system for letting a similarly demented 86-year-old Nazi war criminal off the hook, fuming “I don’t care what bloody age they are.”

Janner died in 2015 and the public hearing for allegations against him has been scheduled for 2020Other investigations into British establishment pedophiles are ongoing.

4. JTRIG/HSOC

In August 2013, Brazilian journalist David Miranda was detained in the UK “under Schedule 7 of the Terrorism Act.” But he wasn’t suspected of terrorism. What security officials really wanted to know was how much he knew about British surveillance programs, as well as those of the NSA. Furthermore, by imposing the full nine hours’ detention afforded them under the Terrorism Act, they hoped to send a warning to his husband, the British journalist Glenn Greenwald.

It didn’t work. Hours later, Greenwald released a statement of outraged defiance via the Guardian’s website, knowing that GCHQ (Britain’s state surveillance agency) would probably see it within minutes. The following year, he won the Public Service Pulitzer for bringing Edward Snowden’s NSA/Five Eyes (FVEY) revelations to light.

Thanks to Greenwald, Miranda, and of course Snowden among others, most of us are by now at least dimly aware that our governments are spying on us all. But their fear of the internet, and hence their need to control it, goes deeper than mass surveillance.

The Joint Threat Research Intelligence Group (JTRIG) is a unit within GCHQ whose aim it is to sow discord and disinfo online. It seeks to influence or “game” online interactions (e.g. forums, comments sections) by applying theories of compliance and trust. In other words, it employs an army of trolls. Its partner-in-crime is the Human Science Operations Cell (HSOC), whose agents apparently refer to themselves as “magicians of persuasion.”

Unnervingly, JTRIG also targets individuals. But these targets needn’t be criminals or “terrorists.” Investigative journalists, political activists, and other inconvenient civilian subtypes—who, by virtue of their legal innocence, are rightly out of reach for law enforcement—can find their reputations and livelihoods suddenly destroyed by vicious rumors spread online or sent to their smartphone contacts.

As far as we know this happens all the time. And not just in Britain. These tactics are shared between each of the Five Eyes surveillance states: the UK, the US, Australia, Canada, and New Zealand.

3. Project MKUltra

During the 1950s and ’60s, LSD was revolutionizing psychotherapy (just as it probably will again). Hollywood stars like Cary Grant and Esther Williams attributed life-changing revelations, the overcoming of addictions, and the processing of childhood trauma to LSD-assisted therapy. Breakthroughs expected to take years were happening within a few hours. As Grant put it in an interview with Look magazine in 1959: “At last, I am close to happiness.”

But the CIA was more interested in weaponizing the psychedelic. Documents declassified in 1975 revealed a 20-year-long (1953-1973) human experimentation project, exploring, among other things, whether LSD could be used for mind control. Specifically, they wanted to be able to program people to carry out missions—or, as the CIA put it, “do our bidding”—against their will and without any regard for survival. Only rarely did participants consent, and even then they weren’t fully informed.

Electroshock, sensory deprivation, and neurosurgery were also explored, and those subjected to the tests included prisoners, medical professionals, cancer patients, prostituteschildren, and animals. In the 1960s, for instance, the CIA “successfully” made remote-controlled dogs.

Of course, it’s hardly possible to go into much detail here—not least because CIA Director Richard Helms burned most of the records back in 1973. And the fact that “only” 20,000 documents remain, as a fraction of the original archive, gives a sense of its overall scale. But what’s interesting is that MKUltra began the very same year that America adopted the Nuremberg Code. This international standard for research ethics emphasized the necessity for informed consent and was expressly worded to prevent any repeat of Nazi-style human experimentation.

2. Operation Cauldron

During the Cold War, the British were taught to fear the Soviets. But their own government was more of a threat. Between 1953 and 1964, the UK’s chemical/biological warfare research unit, Porton Down, released 4,600 kilos of zinc cadmium sulphide—a potential carcinogen—from aircraft, ships, and trucks onto civilian populations in Wiltshire, Bedfordshire, and Norfolk. Then in 1964 they released Bacillus globigii—linked to food poisoning, eye infections, and sepsis—into the London Underground. They wanted to see how rapidly it spread through the Tube network.

Some might say the scientists weren’t aware of the risks, that in those days the research was lacking. But a number of them had “grave misgivings” about conducting the field trials. And none of them could have been in any doubt whatsoever as to the toxicity of Pasteurella [Yersiniapestis (the Black Death or bubonic plague), which they released off the coast of Scotland in 1952. This test staked the lives of thousands of Hebridean islanders on the plague being blown out to sea, and on the wind not simply changing direction. That was irresponsible enough. But when a fishing vessel unexpectedly appeared and passed through the cloud of live bacteria, the government’s response was even more disturbing. Instead of alerting and quarantining the trawler, they allowed it to dock on the mainland. In other words, Churchill’s post-war government was more prepared to risk an outbreak of plague than to come clean about having released it.

As it turned out, the fishermen hadn’t caught the Black Death. But they had been affected by a number of other agents leaking from the tanker that spread it. This led to hair loss for at least one of them.

The government didn’t learn from the test. After burning all but one of the documents pertaining to it, they simply relocated their research overseas. Churchill personally approved a plan to test bio-weapons in the colonies instead. Bahamians were subjected to encephalomyelitis (a cause of fever, fatigue, and even death) and Nigerians were subjected to nerve gas. More than 14,000 British troops were also experimented on between 1945 and 1989.

The British military is now thought to have carried out more than 30,000 secret tests—and largely done away with the evidence.

1. Operation Gladio

After WWII, with the threat of Soviet expansion looming, the US/UK-led NATO set up a network of secret armies throughout Europe. Modeled on the guerrilla resistance movements of the war years, these groups were totally unaccountable to citizens and often unknown to governments. In fact, it wasn’t until 1990 that European Parliament formally exposed and objected to their existence.

Their job was to undermine the Communists at all costs—and to keep doing so even if the Communists won. However, the Communists weren’t all that disliked. The Italian Communist Party, for instance, was a valued part of the mainstream—despite US efforts to destroy it. If Operation Gladio was to uphold Capitalism in Europe, therefore, it had to make people hate Communism. And it had to recruit the only people who hated it enough in the first place: Nazis.

NATO’s illegal foot soldiers carried out terrorist attacks across the continent and blamed them on the USSR. Civilians, including children, were brutally murdered at random, including at the 1980 Oktoberfest in Munich. It had to be at random and it had to involve children so that nobody nowhere felt safe. Eventually, NATO assumed, everyone would be so afraid of the Commies they would eagerly support previously unthinkable infringements of their hard-won civil liberties (such as mass surveillance).

It was unusual for the perpetrators to survive these attacks, or if they did they’d be unavailable for questioning. However, in 1984, the neo-Fascist Gladio operative Vincenzo Vinciguerra was brought to trial for a car bomb 12 years earlier. He freely admitted his guilt but said he was under the protection of NATO, and furthermore that he was one of many operatives. Among the few people to actually believe him was the Italian judge Felice Casson, whose subsequent digging around revealed NATO’s “strategy of tension.” This involved the execution of false-flag terror attacks to blame on fabricated enemies, paralyzing the masses with fear to manufacture consent for just about anything: mass surveillance, foreign wars, whatever.

This “strategy of tension” was also behind Operation Northwoods (mentioned in the previous list). And there’s absolutely no reason to believe it’s been taken off the table today. The “enemies” have simply changed.


The Cloak of Secrecy –

WIF Government Confidential

Alien Life Handbook – WIF Expert Forum

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WIF Expert-001

Theories on Alien Life

from Experts in

Science and Technology

One of the biggest mysteries humans face is: are we alone in the universe? Some of the greatest scientific minds in the world have thought about this question, and at more length than the scientific layman. So what do they think? Are we alone in the vast universe? Or will we one day meet intelligent life?

10. Julian Assange

assange

We know what you’re probably thinking. These guys are idiots. Julian Assange is not a technologist or a scientist. To that we counter: maybe we are. But Assangewas a computer programmer and hacker. However, we mostly want to include him because if there’s anyone who knows about government secrets, such as classified information on UFOs and alien contact, he may be the best person to go to.

Assange, of course, is the editor of WikiLeaks. He’s responsible for the biggest leak of military information in history. Assange has been asked numerous times if the government was hiding UFO or alien information. And, according to him, the answer is no. The only reference to UFOs ever found on WikiLeaks is a Canadian UFO cult called the Raelians.

Assange gets very annoyed with crazy conspiracy theories, like UFOs and people involved with the 9/11 “Truth” movement. He says that there are conspiracies everywhere that lead to war and mass fraud, and people don’t need to make up new ones.

9. Richard Feynman

Richard Feynman was a Nobel Prize-winning physicist who helped develop the atomic bomb during World War II. He also helped popularize physics through books and TV shows that were known for being informative and funny.

Feynman was definitely open to the possibility of life other than our own in the universe. He saw there was no definitive proof that it didn’t exist. But one thing he highly doubted was that flying saucers visited Earth. At a lecture in 1965 at Cornell University, Feynman said, “I think that it is much more likely that the reports of flying saucers are the results of the known irrational characteristics of terrestrial intelligence than of the unknown rational efforts of extra-terrestrial intelligence.”

8. Edward Snowden

snowden

 A lot of times, Edward Snowden is associated with Assange and WikiLeaks. The truth is, they are completely unrelated. However, they do share similarities because both are responsible for massive information leaks. In the case of Snowden, he was a computer technician working for the CIA, and then he became a subcontractor with the NSA. While working there, he uncovered that the NSA wasspying on its own citizens. They were also watching major technology corporations like Google, Microsoft, Facebook, and Apple. He also exposed that the NSA wasn’t the only one doing it. Britain’s version of the NSA, Government Communications Headquarters, was also spying on their own citizens. Snowden took the information to the press, and was immediately labeled a traitor. He’s been in Russia ever since.

Even though he had access to amazing amounts of confidential government information, he did not find a single shred of evidence that supports that aliens have made contact. However, where they differ is that Snowden thinks alien life could be out there. We just haven’t been able to communicate with them because of encryption.

While talking with Neil deGrasse Tyson, Snowden said that, like us, other advanced beings may encrypt their information. That will make finding them much more difficult. He pointed out that only the beginning of our communication technology wasn’t encrypted. For example, before encryption, information was transmitted through waves, and picked up by antennas for television and radio. However, some of these signals would have also been sent out into space. Once encryption started, fewer signals would have been sent out, making it harder for alien life to find us because there is less “noise” coming from Earth. On our end, aliens couldbe sending us messages. Perhaps our satellites just aren’t recognizing them because our tech is too heavily encrypted.

7. Ellen Stofan

Ellen Stofan is a scientist you may not have heard of, but she’s been NASA’s Chief Scientist since 2013. She is quite optimistic when it comes to finding other life in the universe. While speaking on a panel in 2015 about water in the universe, Stofan said that she believes by 2025, we’ll find strong indications of life outside of Earth. Then, within the next two or three decades, we will have definitive proof.

So, why is she so optimistic? Stofan says that NASA is implementing new technology that will help in the search. Plus, researchers have a much better idea where to look. They also know how to look for life other than our own. Amazingly, the other panelists agree with her and think that finding extraterrestrial life is a matter of when, not if.

Stofan also clarified that the alien life may not be intelligent, and will probably be microbes.

6. Albert Einstein

einstein

Albert Einstein is synonymous with genius. But did he think it was possible that aliens existed? In 1920, a reporter from the Daily Mail asked Einstein about life elsewhere in the universe. He replied, “Why should the Earth be the only planet supporting human life? It is not singular in any other respect.” So while it was fairly clear to Einstein that there’s a good chance life does exist somewhere in the universe, he thought that people trying to contact aliens were doing it all wrong. From the late 19th century up to the present day with the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) programs, most people have tried to make contact with life on other planets with radio waves. Einstein thought that, if alien life were out there, they would contact us using light rays. Light rays are easier to control.

The question then, is: was Einstein correct? Have we been trying to contact aliens incorrectly for over a century and wasted billions upon billions of dollars and man hours? Well, yes and no. When Einstein gave his answer, he didn’t have enough information about outer space. Specifically, in space there is something called interstellar, or cosmic, dust. This dust blocks shorter-wavelength light, but radio waves can easily pass through it. In 1920, when Einstein made his prediction, scientists didn’t know that.

With that being said, there are teams trying Einstein’s method, which is called Optical SETI. A notable program using light beams to contact aliens is at Harvard. The problem is that when using light beams, the light has to be directed. Radio waves, however, spread across space like ripples in a pond.

5. Nikola Tesla

tesla

Nikola Tesla, one of the more notable madmen of science, definitely believed that there was alien life. Specifically, he thought Mars housed intelligent beings. Tesla also believed there was a way to communicate with these beings on other planets. In 1901, he promised that he would make it possible. This was an incredibly ambitious goal, considering this was the early 20th century and home telephoneswere just becoming common.

Tesla’s big plans of phoning another planet started in 1899, when he moved to Colorado Springs. There, he set up his most ambitious plan: a power station that would provide inexpensive energy to thousands of people without the use of wires. For some reason, he also thought that it would be possible to use similar technology to contact other planets. How Tesla planned to communicate with Mars was not exactly clear. He tried to explain it in an article in Collier’s Weekly, but unfortunately, he was short on specific details. Tesla was ahead of his time, but working without a lot of knowledge that we now know. So what he did say was incorrect. For example, his plan uses electrical conduction and induction, which couldn’t travel across space in the same way radio waves would.

However, Tesla was apparently aware that radio waves may be helpful in inter-planet communication. In 1901, Tesla received an unusual radio signal. He thought it might be from Mars. Although it’s unclear what the radio signal was, it’s obvious that Tesla thought alien life is out there.

4. Bill Nye

Based on the sheer number of stars and planets outside of our own solar system, Bill Nye believes that there has to be life out there somewhere. However, Nye’s reason for this assertion brings up one of the biggest problems when it comes to searching for extraterrestrial life. If the universe is so vast, where do we even begin to search?

Nye believes that the likeliest candidate for finding life is Europa, which is one of the many moons of Jupiter. It was one of the first four moons discovered by  Galileo Galilei in 1610. The four moons are called the Galilean satellites, and Europa is the smallest. The reason that Europa is so promising is because it has twice the amount of seawater as Earth. That’s a good indicator of the possibility life. The problem is that since Europa is so far away from the sun, the surface is ice. That ice is about 10-30 miles deep. Below all that ice is water that remains liquid, thanks to the tidal actions of Europa.

Nye believes that a vessel could be sent to Europa with a specialized drill. It would cost about $2 billion and would take 10 years. While that may sound like a lot, Nye says it’s about the same price as everyone in America buying just one cup of coffee. He then points out: isn’t the price of one cup of coffee a good investment to find life on another planet?

3. Neil deGrasse Tyson

The host of the new Cosmos and NOVA, Neil deGrasse Tyson hopes that we will find out if there is alien life within the next 50 years. He thinks the discovery will advance the field of biology by leaps and bounds, because it will help us explain what exactly makes something “alive.” For the first time we will be able to compare and contrast with a non-Earth life form. This will open up the spectrum on what exactly life is.

However, Tyson also says that there is the potential that alien life is out there and they might be too advanced to bother communicating with us. Tyson suggests, because there are plenty of habitable planets other than our own, someone could be sending us what they think are simple messages. However, the messages are way beyond our comprehension. To illustrate his point, Tyson compared our interactions with chimpanzees. Chimps and humans share 98.8 percent of the same DNA. Yet, we are so intellectually different. Chimps can do some basic math, but humans are doing quantum mechanics.

What if the intelligent life is more than 1.2 percent different in DNA than us? Say 2%, or even 10%. It would mean that alien life trying to communicate with us, would be like us trying to open up a line of dialogue with the chimp population. Tyson says that this very thought sometimes keeps him up at night.

2. Carl Sagan

The late Carl Sagan was an astronomer, cosmologist, astrophysicist, and astrobiologist. He only published one fiction book in his life, Contact, which was made into a movie of the same name in 1998. The book focuses on the very question of what first contact with extraterrestrial life would be like. Instead of monsters or an invasion, the aliens send Earthlings plans for a machine, which we are supposed to build, but for unknown reasons. So did Sagan believe in UFOs and Aliens? Well, it was a rather complicated question for the man. When asked directly, he said:

“I’m frequently asked, ‘Do you believe there’s extraterrestrial intelligence?’ I give the standard arguments- there are a lot of places out there, the molecules of life are everywhere, I use the word billions, and so on. Then I say it would be astonishing to me if there weren’t extraterrestrial intelligence, but of course there is as yet no compelling evidence for it.

 Often, I’m asked next, ‘What do you really think?’

I say, ‘I just told you what I really think.’

‘Yes, but what’s your gut feeling?’

But I try not to think with my gut. If I’m serious about understanding the world, thinking with anything besides my brain, as tempting as that might be, is likely to get me into trouble. Really, it’s okay to reserve judgment until the evidence is in.”

 Even though there was no evidence to prove or disapprove aliens exist, Sagan was fascinated by the possibility of intelligent alien life forms since he was a child. He thought there was a good chance that other life forms existed somewhere in the universe. Notably, while hosting Cosmos, Sagan said that there should be millions of other technological civilizations just in the Milky Way. He also co-wrote a book that was published in 1966 called Intelligent Life in the Universe in which he theorized life on other planets was possible. However, he was very doubtful of alien abductions, and this could have come from his work with the government.

Supposedly, Sagan worked for Project Blue Book, which was a study of the possiblity UFOs by the United States Air Force that ran from 1952 to 1969. The goal of the project was to determine if UFOs were an actual threat to national security, and to scientifically analyze UFO-related data. The official statement from the Air Force is that Project Blue Book did not find any evidence of UFOs or alien life.

After working with the Air Force, Sagan continued to work with the government. He became an advisor to NASA. Later in his life, Sagan worked with SETI projects and in the last year of his life, he was a member of the SETI Institute’s Board of Trustees.

1. Stephen Hawking

Fear of Aliens

 

Since about 2010, world renowned theoretical physicist and cosmologist Stephen Hawking has been very clear in his thoughts on alien life. Mainly, there’s a good chance that they will be hostile and crush us, no different than a human wiping out an ant colony. Hawking’s reasoning stems from humanity’s history. Humans have a tendency to kill off species and even other civilizations of humans with lower technology. Why would an advanced alien species be any different from our own?

Hawking said that the reason aliens might come to Earth isn’t too different from the original Independence Day. He said, “I imagine they might exist in massive ships… having used up all the resources from their home planet. Such advanced aliens would perhaps become nomads, looking to conquer and colonize whatever planets they can reach.”

However, despite the danger, Hawking believes we should keep looking for alien life. Still, he thinks that the probability of finding life on another planet soon is pretty low. But that doesn’t mean it doesn’t exist. We just may have a hard time finding it.

As for what Hawking thinks alien life might look like in our solar system, he said that most of it would be microbial or, at most, small animals. He also said that on ocean planets and moons there might be life underwater.

Another theory from Hawking regarding extraterrestrial life is that there may have been advanced civilizations throughout the universe that have already come and gone. They could have wiped themselves out before mastering interstellar travel. Hawking uses this example as a warning to humankind about scientific advancement. In the past, we’ve been on the brink of destruction with things like the proliferation of nuclear weapons. It is possible we will do so again in the future before we master interstellar travel.


 Alien Life Handbook

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Alien Life Forms by Richard Bizley

Alien Life Forms by Richard Bizley

Theories on Alien Life

from Experts in

Science and Technology

One of the biggest mysteries humans face is: are we alone in the universe? Some of the greatest scientific minds in the world have thought about this question, and at more length than the scientific layman. So what do they think? Are we alone in the vast universe? Or will we one day meet intelligent life?

from contributor 

10. Julian Assange

assange

We know what you’re probably thinking. These guys are idiots. Julian Assange is not a technologist or a scientist. To that we counter: maybe we are. But Assange was a computer programmer and hacker. However, we mostly want to include him because if there’s anyone who knows about government secrets, such as classified information on UFOs and alien contact, he may be the best person to go to.

Assange, of course, is the editor of WikiLeaks. He’s responsible for the biggest leak ofmilitary information in history. Assange has been asked numerous times if the government was hiding UFO or alien information. And, according to him, the answer is no. The only reference to UFOs ever found on WikiLeaks is a Canadian UFO cult called the Raelians.

Assange gets very annoyed with crazy conspiracy theories, like UFOs and people involved with the 9/11 “Truth” movement. He says that there are conspiracies everywhere that lead to war and mass fraud, and people don’t need to make up new ones.

9. Richard Feynman

Richard Feynman was a Nobel Prize-winning physicist who helped develop the atomic bomb during World War II. He also helped popularize physics through books and TV shows that were known for being informative and funny.

Feynman was definitely open to the possibility of life other than our own in the universe. He saw there was no definitive proof that it didn’t exist. But one thing he highly doubted was that flying saucers visited Earth. At a lecture in 1965 at Cornell University, Feynman said, “I think that it is much more likely that the reports of flying saucers are the results of the known irrational characteristics of terrestrial intelligence than of the unknown rational efforts of extra-terrestrial intelligence.”

8. Edward Snowden

snowden

A lot of times, Edward Snowden is associated with Assange and WikiLeaks. The truth is, they are completely unrelated. However, they do share similarities because both are responsible for massive information leaks. In the case of Snowden, he was a computer technician working for the CIA, and then he became a subcontractor with the NSA. While working there, he uncovered that the NSA was spying on its own citizens. They were also watching major technology corporations like Google, Microsoft, Facebook, and Apple. He also exposed that the NSA wasn’t the only one doing it. Britain’s version of the NSA,Government Communications Headquarters, was also spying on their own citizens. Snowden took the information to the press, and was immediately labeled a traitor. He’s been in Russia ever since.

Even though he had access to amazing amounts of confidential government information, he did not find a single shred of evidence that supports that aliens have made contact. However, where they differ is that Snowden thinks alien life could be out there. We just haven’t been able to communicate with them because of encryption.

While talking with Neil deGrasse Tyson, Snowden said that, like us, other advanced beings may encrypt their information. That will make finding them much more difficult. He pointed out that only the beginning of our communication technology wasn’t encrypted. For example, before encryption, information was transmitted through waves, and picked up by antennas for television and radio. However, some of these signals would have also been sent out into space. Once encryption started, fewer signals would have been sent out, making it harder for alien life to find us because there is less “noise” coming from Earth. On our end, aliens could be sending us messages. Perhaps our satellites just aren’t recognizing them because our tech is too heavily encrypted.

7. Ellen Stofan

Ellen Stofan is a scientist you may not have heard of, but she’s been NASA’s Chief Scientist since 2013. She is quite optimistic when it comes to finding other life in the universe. While speaking on a panel in 2015 about water in the universe, Stofan said that she believes by 2025, we’ll find strong indications of life outside of Earth. Then, within the next two or three decades, we will have definitive proof.

So, why is she so optimistic? Stofan says that NASA is implementing new technology that will help in the search. Plus, researchers have a much better idea where to look. They also know how to look for life other than our own. Amazingly, the other panelists agree with her and think that finding extraterrestrial life is a matter of when, not if.

Stofan also clarified that the alien life may not be intelligent, and will probably be microbes.

6. Albert Einstein

einstein

Albert Einstein is synonymous with genius. But did he think it was possible that aliens existed? In 1920, a reporter from the Daily Mailasked Einstein about life elsewhere in the universe. He replied, “Why should the Earth be the only planet supporting human life? It is not singular in any other respect.” So while it was fairly clear to Einstein that there’s a good chance life does exist somewhere in the universe, he thought that people trying to contact aliens were doing it all wrong. From the late 19th century up to the present day with the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) programs, most people have tried to make contact with life on other planets with radio waves. Einstein thought that, if alien life were out there, they would contact us using light rays. Light rays are easier to control.

The question then, is: was Einstein correct? Have we been trying to contact aliens incorrectly for over a century and wasted billions upon billions of dollars and man hours? Well, yes and no. When Einstein gave his answer, he didn’t have enough information about outer space. Specifically, in space there is something called interstellar, or cosmic, dust. This dust blocks shorter-wavelength light, but radio waves can easily pass through it. In 1920, when Einstein made his prediction, scientists didn’t know that.

With that being said, there are teams trying Einstein’s method, which is called Optical SETI. A notable program using light beams to contact aliens is at Harvard. The problem is that when using light beams, the light has to be directed. Radio waves, however, spread across space like ripples in a pond.

5. Nikola Tesla

tesla

Nikola Tesla, one of the more notable madmen of science, definitely believed that there was alien life. Specifically, he thought Mars housed intelligent beings. Tesla also believed there was a way to communicate with these beings on other planets. In 1901, he promised that he would make it possible. This was an incredibly ambitious goal, considering this was the early 20th century and home telephones were just becoming common.

Tesla’s big plans of phoning another planet started in 1899, when he moved to Colorado Springs. There, he set up his most ambitious plan: a power station that would provide inexpensive energy to thousands of people without the use of wires. For some reason, he also thought that it would be possible to use similar technology to contact other planets. How Tesla planned to communicate with Mars was not exactly clear. He tried to explain it in an article in Collier’s Weekly, but unfortunately, he was short on specific details. Tesla was ahead of his time, but working without a lot of knowledge that we now know. So what he did say was incorrect. For example, his plan uses electrical conduction and induction, which couldn’t travel across space in the same way radio waves would.

However, Tesla was apparently aware that radio waves may be helpful in inter-planet communication. In 1901, Tesla received an unusual radio signal. He thought it might be from Mars. Although it’s unclear what the radio signal was, it’s obvious that Tesla thought alien life is out there.

4. Bill Nye

Based on the sheer number of stars and planets outside of our own solar system, Bill Nye believes that there has to be life out there somewhere. However, Nye’s reason for this assertion brings up one of the biggest problems when it comes to searching for extraterrestrial life. If the universe is so vast, where do we even begin to search?

Nye believes that the likeliest candidate for finding life is Europa, which is one of the many moons of Jupiter. It was one of the first four moons discovered by  Galileo Galilei in 1610. The four moons are called the Galilean satellites, and Europa is the smallest. The reason that Europa is so promising is because it has twice the amount of seawater as Earth. That’s a good indicator of the possibility life. The problem is that since Europa is so far away from the sun, the surface is ice. That ice is about 10-30 miles deep. Below all that ice is water that remains liquid, thanks to the tidal actions of Europa.

Nye believes that a vessel could be sent to Europa with a specialized drill. It would cost about $2 billion and would take 10 years. While that may sound like a lot, Nye says it’s about the same price as everyone in America buying just one cup of coffee. He then points out: isn’t the price of one cup of coffee a good investment to find life on another planet?

3. Neil deGrasse Tyson

The host of the new Cosmos and NOVA, Neil deGrasse Tyson hopes that we will find out if there is alien life within the next 50 years. He thinks the discovery will advance the field of biology by leaps and bounds, because it will help us explain what exactly makes something “alive.” For the first time we will be able to compare and contrast with a non-Earth life form. This will open up the spectrum on what exactly life is.

However, Tyson also says that there is the potential that alien life is out there and they might be too advanced to bother communicating with us. Tyson suggests, because there are plenty of habitable planets other than our own, someone could be sending us what they think are simple messages. However, the messages are way beyond our comprehension. To illustrate his point, Tyson compared our interactions with chimpanzees. Chimps and humans share 98.8 percent of the same DNA. Yet, we are so intellectually different. Chimps can do some basic math, but humans are doing quantum mechanics.

What if the intelligent life is more than 1.2 percent different in DNA than us? Say 2%, or even 10%. It would mean that alien life trying to communicate with us, would be like us trying to open up a line of dialogue with the chimp population. Tyson says that this very thought sometimes keeps him up at night.

2. Carl Sagan

The late Carl Sagan was an astronomer, cosmologist, astrophysicist, and astrobiologist. He only published one fiction book in his life, Contact, which was made into a movie of the same name in 1998. The book focuses on the very question of what first contact with extraterrestrial life would be like. Instead of monsters or an invasion, the aliens send Earthlings plans for a machine, which we are supposed to build, but for unknown reasons. So did Sagan believe in UFOs and Aliens? Well, it was a rather complicated question for the man. When asked directly, he said:

“I’m frequently asked, ‘Do you believe there’s extraterrestrial intelligence?’ I give the standard arguments- there are a lot of places out there, the molecules of life are everywhere, I use the word billions, and so on. Then I say it would be astonishing to me if there weren’t extraterrestrial intelligence, but of course there is as yet no compelling evidence for it.

Often, I’m asked next, ‘What do you really think?’

I say, ‘I just told you what I really think.’

‘Yes, but what’s your gut feeling?’

But I try not to think with my gut. If I’m serious about understanding the world, thinking with anything besides my brain, as tempting as that might be, is likely to get me into trouble. Really, it’s okay to reserve judgment until the evidence is in.”

Even though there was no evidence to prove or disapprove aliens exist, Sagan was fascinated by the possibility of intelligent alien life forms since he was a child. He thought there was a good chance that other life forms existed somewhere in the universe. Notably, while hosting Cosmos, Sagan said that there should be millions of other technological civilizations just in the Milky Way. He also co-wrote a book that was published in 1966 called Intelligent Life in the Universe in which he theorized life on other planets was possible. However, he was very doubtful of alien abductions, and this could have come from his work with the government.

Supposedly, Sagan worked for Project Blue Book, which was a study of the possiblity UFOs by the United States Air Force that ran from 1952 to 1969. The goal of the project was to determine if UFOs were an actual threat to national security, and to scientifically analyze UFO-related data. The official statement from the Air Force is that Project Blue Book did not find any evidence of UFOs or alien life.

After working with the Air Force, Sagan continued to work with the government. He became an advisor to NASA. Later in his life, Sagan worked with SETI projects and in the last year of his life, he was a member of the SETI Institute’s Board of Trustees.

1. Stephen Hawking

Stephen Hawking at his Oxford University graduation

Link to Hawkings Video

Since about 2010, world renowned theoretical physicist and cosmologist Stephen Hawking has been very clear in his thoughts on alien life. Mainly, there’s a good chance that they will be hostile and crush us, no different than a human wiping out an ant colony. Hawking’s reasoning stems from humanity’s history. Humans have a tendency to kill off species and even other civilizations of humans with lower technology. Why would an advanced alien species be any different from our own?

Hawking said that the reason aliens might come to Earth isn’t too different from the original Independence Day. He said, “I imagine they might exist in massive ships… having used up all the resources from their home planet. Such advanced aliens would perhaps become nomads, looking to conquer and colonize whatever planets they can reach.”

However, despite the danger, Hawking believes we should keep looking for alien life. Still, he thinks that the probability of finding life on another planet soon is pretty low. But that doesn’t mean it doesn’t exist. We just may have a hard time finding it.

As for what Hawking thinks alien life might look like in our solar system, he said that most of it would be microbial or, at most, small animals. He also said that on ocean planets and moons there might be life underwater.

Another theory from Hawking regarding extraterrestrial life is that there may have been advanced civilizations throughout the universe that have already come and gone. They could have wiped themselves out before mastering interstellar travel. Hawking uses this example as a warning to humankind about scientific advancement. In the past, we’ve been on the brink of destruction with things like the proliferation of nuclear weapons. It is possible we will do so again in the future before we master interstellar travel.


Alien Life Debate

– Experts Weigh-in @ WIF