World Wide Words Issue 911 – WIF Style

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from the UK's Michael Quinion

from the UK’s Michael Quinion

World Wide Words

Issue 911

Feedback, Notes and Comments

letter-to-editor

Volleyballene. Barbara Millikan emailed to point out that entomologists are just as skittish in naming species as chemists are with new substances. As two examples, she mentioned the insects Carmenelectra shechisme and Scaptia Beyonceae. She gave a link to an article on the Plantwise blog which provides more examples.

And Ed Matthews tracked down polybathroomfloorene, which isn’t a fullerene, but the creation of an SF author:

That, obviously, had been the multiple-benzene-ring gas Hawkesite; it had been very popular during the days of the warring stellar “empires,” when it had been called “polybathroomfloorene” for no discoverable reason.

Earthman, Come Home, by James Blish, 1955.

Oddest book title of the year. The last issue detailed the shortlist for the 2015 Bookseller Diagram prize. The winner was announced on 26 March: a travelogue called Strangers Have the Best Candy, self-published by Margaret Meps Schulte. Subtitled “How talking to strangers leads to a life of crazy adventure and lasting friendship”, it chronicles her experiences of talking to strangers while travelling in the US.

Trove. An unexpected consequence of my piece on trove in the last issue was a mention of it in the Open Door section of the Guardian newspaper last Monday, with an extended quote. It also provoked a change to the journal’s style guide.

Vellichor

Amogh Simha alerted me to this word, which has been widely mentioned on social media in the past year but which is unknown to the non-digital world. All the references to it quote the same definition, which suggests that they all derive from a common source.

This appears to be John Koenig’s wonderfully named site The Dictionary of Obscure Sorrows. It was picked up by Twitter subscribers in August 2013 and has been making the rounds ever since. It has caught people’s attention online in a way that coined words rarely do.

John Koenig wrote of his creation that it meant:

the strange wistfulness of used bookstores, which are somehow infused with the passage of time — filled with thousands of old books you’ll never have time to read, each of which is itself locked in its own era, bound and dated and papered over like an old room the author abandoned years ago, a hidden annex littered with thoughts left just as they were on the day they were captured.

Few words in English end in -chor, easily the most common being anchor. It and two others come from unconnected roots: the obsolete vouchor, which the Oxford English Dictionary tells us is a person “who calls another into court to warrant a title” and the chemical term parachor. Two more are the linked ichor and petrichor . The former is the stuff that was said to flow in the veins of the Greek gods in place of blood; the latter is the distinctive and pleasant smell that can accompany rain falling on ground baked dry.

This last evocative word (created only in 1964 from ichor with a prefix from Greek petros, stone) must surely be the inspiration for vellichor, with the first part replaced with vellum. For lovers of books, there is nothing more distinctive and melancholy than the sight and smell of old books, redolent of dust and decayed hopes.

Vellichor deserves to be more widely known.

Galoot

Q. From Jim Curran in Canada (a related question came from Sam Young in New Zealand): I have heard the expression big galloot but wonder what a galloot is, whether large or small? Can you enlighten me?

A.  I’m not at all sure one can have a small galoot. The image is usually of a man who is variously worthless, uneducated, simple-minded or stupid. He may be clumsy and large, but not necessarily, though big galoot is certainly the compound that’s most often been found. He may also be argumentative and difficult to get on with, hence the classic description ornery galoot that I recall from my days of reading American cowboy stories. It’s basically an all-purpose term of mild contempt with humorous undertones. On the other hand, like many such insults, galoot can also be a term of affection. It was quite widely used from about 1900 to the 1940s but is now outdated and unfashionable even in its American heartland .

The spelling I’m using, by the way, is the usual one in my dictionaries, though yours is also common. In its early days, around the beginning of the nineteenth century, it was also recorded variously as galoon, galoosh, galook and galout.

It appears in 1819 in a work with the catchy title Memoirs of the First Thirty-Two Years of The Life of James Hardy Vaux, A Swindler and Pickpocket; Now Transported for the Second Time, and For Life, to New South Wales. He added to it a glossary of slang, A New Vocabulary of the Flash Language, which Vaux had compiled while a transported convict in Australia. He defined galloot, as he spelled it, as “a soldier”. It retained that association in the 1864 edition of John Camden Hotten’s Slang Dictionary, but Hotten spelled it geeloot and said it was a recruit or awkward soldier. Three years later Admiral William Henry Smyth published his Sailor’s Word-Book: an Alphabetical Digest of Nautical Terms and included that definition, adding a note that it could also refer to a “young or ‘green’ marine”.

Despite the early association with Australia, the term is British. The earliest example I’ve found in a printed work is this mildly mysterious snippet from a newspaper article about a political row involving a man named Swan:

Our excellent contemporary, the Edinburgh Evening Post, which so thoroughly exposed the humbug of the factious, scribbling, galloot Alexander Sommerville, has also landed the Swan high and dry, and never did anything bearing the same name look more awkward, even to deformity, than does the present specimen.

Old England (London), 20 Jan. 1833. The title of the article, by the way, is “Rara Avis — A Black Swan”, a play on the man’s name and character that long precedes all the fuss in recent years about the term black swan for a rare and unexpected event that has significant consequences.

Galoot was undoubtedly slang taken to Australia by involuntary immigrants. The associations with both army and navy are present in the first example known from that country, in a tale told by an old seaman:

May I never see light if ev’ry chap as toed a line on her deck, from stem to starn, had’nt his body braced-up with a pair o’ braces crossing his shoulders for all the world like a galloot on guard.

The Sydney Gazette (New South Wales), 22 Jan. 1833.

The seafaring associations also appeared the following year in Jacob Faithful, a British work by Captain Frederick Marryat (still known a little for his children’s classic Coral Island). In it, a naval officer, messing about in a boat on the River Thames, nearly gets his four unpleasant civilian companions drowned, only to be saved by Jacob Faithful, a river boatman and the book’s narrator:

“Have you got them all, waterman?” said he. “Yes, sir, I believe so; I have four.” “The tally is right,” replied he, “and four greater galloots were never picked up; but never mind that. It was my nonsense that nearly drowned them; and, therefore, I’m very glad you’ve managed so well.”

Jacob Faithful, by Captain Frederick Marryat, 1834.

Charles Farrar Browne

In the late 1860s it begins to appear in American publications without the military or seafaring associations but with the more general sense of a term of abuse for a person, usually male. However, the first known example in print from North America is in a comedy sketch and refers affectionately to a woman:

I felt a sentymental mood still so gently ore me stealin’, and I pawsed before Betsey’s winder, and sung, in a kind of operatic vois, as follers, improintoo, to-wit:
Wake, Betsey, wake,
My sweet galoot!
Rise up, fair lady,
While I touch my lute!

A syndicated tale by “Artemus Ward” (Charles Farrar Browne) in The Worthington Gazette (Indiana), 30 May 1866.

Its source is obscure, though it has been suggested it may be from the Dutch word gelubt for a eunuch or a corruption of Dutch genoot, a companion. Those current dictionaries that hazard a guess mention the Scots loot, a variant form of lout, prefixed by the ker- sound (modified to the spelling ga-) which may in this case be a reinforcement of the idea in the root.

Crizzling

The last issue contained a reference to Robert Macfarlane’s book Landmarks, which details the results of his long search for the language of landscape and natural phenomena. Crizzling is one member of his collection.

It appears in the entry for fizmer — which he says is the rustling noise that is produced in grass by petty agitations of the wind, but which the English Dialect Dictionary of a century ago defines as “to fidget restlessly; to make a great stir about trifles, to make little progress” — with other words that he suggests are imitative of the sounds they represent, such as susurrus, a low soft whispering or rustling sound. He writes that crizzling is the action of frost forming on water. Though he doesn’t make it explicit, putting it with the others suggests that it describes the faint crackling sound you can sometimes hear when ice forms.

It’s a dialect word, best known from Northamptonshire, though the English Dialect Dictionary records it from Yorkshire, Lincolnshire, and Leicestershire as well. Its most famous appearances, two of the few in print before modern times, are in poems by John Clare of Northamptonshire, called the Peasant Poet because he wrote in spare time from working as a farm labourer. His Address to Plenty of 1821 has “View the hole the boys have broke, / Crizzling, still inclin’d to freeze — / And the rime upon the trees.” In another poem, The Woodman, he wrote that “The white frost ’gins crizzle pond and brook.”

These are evocative images that don’t suggest sound but rather the physical change that Professor Macfarlane defined. The few other definitions that exist don’t mention noise either. The English Dialect Dictionary says the verb crizzle means “to become rough on the surface, as water when it begins to freeze” and “To grow hard and rough with heat; to crisp, to make rough with drought or heat.” The Oxford English Dictionary’s definition is similar, to “roughen or crumple the surface” of something.

The word has vanished from dialect, but it lives on in a specialist term that seems to have arisen around the end of the nineteenth century. Crizzled glass, also called sick glass, is the bane of museum conservators. Salts can leach out of old glass that hadn’t been made with the correct ingredients. They can form a crust on the surface that clouds and roughens it, or may generate a network of fine cracks that may cause the glass to fall apart.

Caparisoned

Don’t be confused by the first syllable: this English word doesn’t imply a head covering, though it can be used for clothing. But there is a historical link, as some experts believe that caparisoned ultimately derives from the Latin word for a cap.

The original caparison wasn’t for humans. It was a cloth spread over the saddle or harness of a horse. Its source — through French — was Spanish caparazón for a saddlecloth (which may also be the source of carapace, for the upper shell of a tortoise, by inversion of the p and r through what’s called metathesis). This probably came from capa, a short cape or hood, itself from late Latin cappa, a cap. Our cape is from the same Latin word, though via Provençal and French instead. The link may be the idea that a cloth on the back of a horse is equivalent to a cape for a human.

Saddlecloth

 

 

Medieval caparisons could be richly decorated, though that wasn’t implied by its original meaning. However, almost as soon as it came into English it was being used for any sort of splendid or expensive covering, including that of the person. In The Winter’s Tale Shakespeare created the confidence trickster Autolycus, the original “snapper-up of unconsidered trifles” (meaning he appropriated anything that had been left unguarded). When he appears, he wittily bemoans his caparison of rags and tatters, to which he had been reduced after too much gambling and wenching.

Caparisoned often features in historical novels, especially nineteenth-century ones by writers such as Sir Walter Scott. It has dropped off in popularity since then and has become a semi-cliché, often preceded by words such as richly, ornately and finely .

The feasts and pageants that mark coronations, births, marriages and deaths are good for juicy details. Imagine giving birth under a mink-edged cloak of velvet on a richly caparisoned pallet bed, then being removed to an even more splendid bed of state.

The Independent (London), 16 Nov. 2013.

Though caparisoned is still common, caparison (my fingers keep wanting to type comparison) is rare these days, to the extent that its meaning has become somewhat uncertain and muddled. It has been erroneously defined by writers in newspapers as a tournament costume (true in a way, but of a horse rather than its rider) and as a horse in a funeral procession.

SIC

Sic!

John Arthur was fascinated by the genealogical implications of a quotation from Katherine Holman’s Historical Dictionary of the Vikings which appeared in a Wikipedia article on the Old Norse hero Ragnar Lodbrok: “Although his sons are historical figures, there is no evidence that Ragnar himself ever lived.”

“Can I have one of these drinks?” commented Tom Kavanagh on a subheading to an article of 21 March on the Spectator site: “After all, how often does a vicar buy you a drink, especially a female one?”

The lead sentence in an AOL news item of 20 March that Gerald Weissmann submitted has subsequently been reworded, for good reason: “After seven weeks in a medically-induced coma, a source has revealed that Bobbi Kristina Brown’s family is making changes.”

“Definitely disturbing,” was the comment of Ross Burnett on a headline over a story of 24 March on The Week’s website: “Disturbing ultrasounds show how babies are affected by smoking in the womb.” Uncomfortable for the mother, too.

The website of the British estate agents Lancaster Samms features thumbnail biographies of its staff. Steven Burkeman was struck by this one (not solely because of the hypercorrection of whom): “After almost a decade of working in property, Elkie is a passionate and experienced Sales Consultant whom has helped hundreds of buyers find their dream home. Married with two young sons, Elkie has bought and sold herself on many occasions and is personally and professionally accomplished.”

Julane Marx tells us that the Los Angeles Times Sunday Business section had an article on 29 March about becoming an aesthetician (a word new to me): “After following a skin care regiment designed specifically for her, the client’s acne vanished.” Marching men vanquish disease?

You may recall the story from Los Angeles on 10 March about a famous actor having to land his plane on a golf course. The New York Post headlined its item thus: “Harrison Ford wasn’t required to file flight plan before crash-landing.” But then, who is?

The April 2015 issue of Film & Video Maker contains a splendidly awful error, resulting — we must assume — from computer speech-to-text conversion: “Align the optical axes. These are two menagerie lions running through the lenses rather than around the centre of the earth.”

World Wide Words Issue 911

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– WIF Style

Recasting Indiana Jones – WIF Casting Couch

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 Actors Who Could Replace

Harrison Ford as Indiana Jones

Harrison Ford is over 70 years old, a fact that isn’t going to change anytime soon. When Sean Connery played Ford’s father in Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade, Connery was younger than Ford is now. Let’s put it another way: when George Hall played “Old Indy” in the Young Indiana Jones Chronicles, he was only 5 years older than Ford is now.

We love Harrison Ford, but Indiana Jones to iconic a character to age like us mere mortals. While you can cast a movie with Ford portraying Old Indy, you’ll need someone else to play Young Indy during the actual adventures. Might we suggest …

10. Chris O’Donnell

chris-o-donnell

Yes, Chris O’Donnell played Robin in one of the most universally panned Batman movies ever. If that is all that you know about Chris O’Donnell though, please watch NCIS: Los Angeles, Scent of a Woman, or even The Three Musketeers. O’Donnell was also completely underrated in the adaptation of the John Grisham novel The Chamber. O’Donnell can do action sequences, has a really pleasant and likable sense of humor, and is also convincingly intelligent. The latter, for the record, is the main reason that Keanu Reeves was left off of this list.

9. Sam Rockwell

sam-rockwell

In 1999, Sam Rockwell played the hapless Guy in Galaxy Quest, as well as the horrifying Wild Bill in The Green Mile. People literally had to be told that it was the same guy, which both exemplifies how good of a character actor the man is, and also explains why you probably don’t know his name.

Getting so far into character that people forget the actor is a trait that Ford himself initially tried to emulate, by the way. Ford was once told by a producer that a producer could see Tony Curtis play a bag boy and still know that Tony Curtis was a movie star. Ford responded that he thought we were supposed to simply see a bag boy, and not an actor.

Rockwell has done Shakespeare, comedy, and action. Given half a chance, people would debate Rockwell versus Ford with the same veracity that they now debate Kirk versus Picard.

8. Joseph Gordon-Levitt

joseph-gordon-levitt

Kevin Smith was once asked why he suggested Ben Affleck for Daredevil. Smith responded that Affleck was such a versatile actor that Affleck was his response for everything.

Well, Joseph Gordon-Levitt has fit into the Affleck “would be good for anything” persona quite well. Gordon-Levitt is quickly becoming one of the most critically acclaimed and trusted actors in the adventure set. Movies such as Looper and The Dark Knight Rises show that Gordon-Levitt could bring a certainly believably to a role like Indy. Gordon-Levitt also seems to possess the sort of improvisational vulnerability and intelligence required of the esteemed Dr. Henry “Indiana” Jones Jr.

7. Noah Wyle

noah-wyle

It is no small thing that Steven Spielberg is the producer of the series Falling Skies. Wyle has portrayed intelligence through years of work on ER. The other side of the coin is the Librariantelevision movies, which happened to be an awful lot of popcorn fun. They were thoroughly in the vein of almost everything we love about Indiana Jones movies. This would indicate that an older Wyle may well be ready to step into the role of Indy.

6. Matt Damon

Matt-Damon

On the IFC show Bollywood Hero, Chris Kattan asked a producer, “What happened to all those action roles Harrison Ford used to have?” The producer responded “They all went to Matt Damon.” While it is depressing to even mention the continuing career of Chris Kattan, the point made is valid. Once Ford started getting a little old for his go-to roles, Matt Damon started to step in. Damon played “super intelligent” convincingly in Good Will Hunting, and the Bourne movies established Damon as a legitimate action star. All in all, Damon would be instantly believable as Indiana Jones.

5. Jason Sudeikis

Jason-Sudeikis

Write the following down, or at least remember where you read it: Jason Sudeikis is on the verge of becoming one of the biggest stars in this decade. Sudeikis really just lacks a signature role to put him there, and what could be more signature than the hat and whip?

Sudeikis’ roots in Saturday Night Live would oddly suit him well in the role of Indiana Jones. Lets face facts, Indy is more than a bit of a cad with the women. Jones is also a very smooth operator. Another great facet of the Jones mythos is that he often finds himself in ridiculous cliffhangers worthy of the best of Jackie Chan. Those comic / action situations often requires equally ridiculous solutions. For example, Jones once hung a guy on a ceiling fan. He also backed an opponent into a whirling propeller blade. Both sides of Jones could and would suit Sudeikis perfectly.

4. Josh Brolin

josh-brolin

Josh Brolin has definitely emerged as one of the better actors of his generation. Also, quite frankly, Josh just looks the part more than virtually anyone else. The thing that really ranks Brolin so high on this list though, is how he seems to play younger versions of people so well. Brolin nailed the role of Young K in Men In Black III. You can freely debate the merits of the rest of the movie, but Brolin made you believe. Brolin also did the same with a younger version of George W. Bush in Oliver Stone’s W. Brolin just has that uncanny ability to fit himself into other people’s skin. With Brolin’s build, talent, and good looks, his performance as Indiana Jones would rise far above simple mimicry, and straight to the level of true cinema.

3. Sean Patrick Flannery

sean-patrick-flannery

Honestly, why not go with someone with experience in the role? Sean Patrick Flannery played Indy in the Young Indiana Jones Chronicles. Flannery went on to star in the cultfavorite The Boondock Saints, as well as its sequel. Flannery has a great familiarity with the character, and performed Indy admirably. Meanwhile, time has given Flannery a certain “edge” to his performances. Flannery has also grown increasingly bold with his character choices, which would only make his second go-round with the character better and more satisfying. Hey, if Chris Evans can grow from the Human Torch into Captain America, then Sean Patrick Flannery should certainly be allowed to grow from young Indiana Jones into older Indiana Jones.

2. Daniel Craig

daniel-craig

Daniel Craig is one of the few actors who can claim to be a spiritual successor to both Sean Connery and Harrison Ford. Of course, Craig took over the role of James Bond (with the personal endorsement of Connery himself.) Craig also got the praise of Harrison Ford when they worked together on Cowboys and Aliens. Craig also lent his voice to Steven Spielberg’sThe Adventures of Tintin, and also starred in Spielberg’s Munich movie. OK, Cowboys and Aliens may have sucked every egg in the chicken farm, but Craig looked awesome in what was essentially an Indy throwback outfit. The only possible roadblock toward Craig portraying Indy might be the number of commitments he already has over the next few years.

1. Joaquin Phoenix

joaquin-phoenix

River Phoenix’s death was a tragedy on multiple levels. The world has almost forgotten what an incredible actor was lost. In roughly ten minutes, at the beginning of Indiana Jones and The Last Crusade, River Phoenix established himself as the future of the Indy franchise. Sadly, that would never come to be. However, Joaquin has successfully managed to step out of his brother’s shadow with a masterful career on film.  From portraying historical characters such as Commodus and Johnny Cash, to appearing in critically acclaimed fare such as The Master,Phoenix has established himself as one of the most talented and quirky actors of his generation. Not only would Phoenix portraying Jones further his brother’s legacy, it would put a legitimate Oscar-worthy actor in the role of Indiana Jones.

Recasting Indiana Jones

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WIF Casting Couch

Indiana Jones Artifacts

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Top 10 Indiana Jones Artifacts (Not Found In The Movies)

 

In the Indiana Jones universe, there are many “artifacts,” such as the Ark of the Covenant and the Holy Grail, that Indy searches for on his quest to never have to teach a class ever again. In his “expanded universe” however, there was a much more diverse set of artifacts than what the movies limited him to. We examine those in this following list.

10. Thomas Edison’s Electric Car

edison

It is a historical fact that Thomas Edison worked on a battery powered by electricity for the Electric Vehicle Company. As a matter of fact, the Electric Vehicle Company was once the largest producers of automobiles in the United States. Don’t get too excited, they were mostly all for lease or rent. In the Young Indiana Jones Chronicles, there was an episode titled “Princeton, 1916.” The show starts with an elderly Indiana Jones looking at a monster truck, before reminiscing about meeting Thomas Edison and the time he helped to stop German spies from breaking in to Edison’s old laboratory and making off with his electric motor.

9. Golden Mask of the Ramploo Elephant

indiana-jones-and-the-mask-of-the-elephant

In African societies of the 19th century, Elephant Masks would often denote a member of a royal society or the messenger/emissary of a royal. The masks were rare, but did in fact exist. Often, the masks would be painted red and have colorful beads to show wealth, as well as the ability to negotiate purchases. Often, the wearer of an elephant mask would wear a black robe, which would mean that they could even interact between the living and the dead.

In 1987, a Choose-Your-Own-Adventure-style adventure, entitled Indiana Jones and the Mask of the Elephantset Indy off on an adventure to find the fabled Golden Mask of the Ramploo Elephant. The Golden Mask was made of actual gold and bespectacled with jewels. Jones’ ability to find the mask depended on how well you navigated the choices in the book. According to the book’s legend, the Mask was made in order to ward off the spirit of a gigantic elephant.

8. The Great Machine of the Tower Of Babel

indy-n64-gameThe Book Of Genesis, Chapter 11, refers briefly to the Tower of Babel. As an affront to God, the Tower of Babel is destroyed, and the people who made it are confounded with different languages and forced to spread out among the Earth. In the game Indiana Jones and the Infernal Machine, Jones gets a possible idea of why the Tower needed to be destroyed. The Infernal Machine is actually divided into four parts. The assembled machine was in the heart of the Tower of Babel. In the game, when the parts were assembled they could reach out to the realm of the God Marduk.

7. Cup of Djemsheed

Indiana-Jones-And-The-Cup-Of-The-Vampire

The 1984 “Find Your Fate” adventure Indiana Jones and the Cup of the Vampire may have foreshadowed a bit the eventual plot of Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade. The Cup of Djemsheed is a cup of the vampire Vlad Tepes, better known as Dracula. The cup of blood (something like an anti-Grail) has the same effect as the Grail. and his book was published a half decade before the movie. There were several endings, including one which Indiana Jones found the fabled Cup of the Vampire. However, recovering the item also caused Dracula to be resurrected.

6. The Knife of Cain

Indiana-Jones-And-The-Secret-City

In the 1990 book Young Indiana Jones and the Secret City, Indiana Jones comes into contact with the Knife of Cain. Supposedly, this was the object that Cain used to slay Abel in Genesis, Chapter 4. The exact verse states “And Cain talked with Abel his brother: and it came to pass, when they were in the field, that Cain rose up against Abel his brother, and slew him.” There is no mention of a knife anywhere, but there had to be some method that the murder was carried out in. And, since guns didn’t exist back then, and a rock would have been too much of a pain, we can presume a knife did Abel in.

5. The Spear of Destiny

Indiana-Jones-And-The-Spear-Of-Destiny

In April to July of 1995, Dark Horse Comics published Indiana Jones and the Spear of Destiny. Sometimes referred to as the Holy Lance, this is the spear that pierced Christ during the crucifixion. In the comic, there is a race to assemble the Spear between the Nazis (who have the tip) and Jones (who must find the rest.)  The plot is not all that dissimilar from the made-for-television movie The Librarian: Quest for the Spear. Of course, you would have to factor in that the television movie was released nearly a full ten years after the Indiana Jones comic.

4. The Philosopher’s Stone

Indiana-Jones-And-The-Philosphers-Stone

If the title Indiana Jones and the Philosopher’s Stone sounds a bit familiar, then remember that the book was released in 1995, a full two years before the initial release date in Britain of J.K. Rowling’s book Harry Potter and the Philosopher’s Stone. The object is the same in both books. The Philosopher’s Stone in McCoy’s novel turns lead to gold, as well as grants eternal life. Indiana Jones and the Philosopher’s Stone also begins in London, England as well. There is a chance that maybe McCoy should think about writing books about boy wizards.

3. Eye of the Fates

Indiana-Jones-And-The-Eye-Of-The-Fates

In Greek Mythology, witches are referred to as the Graeae (or grey ones.)  The witches have a mystical eye that they pass around to see not only their surroundings, but into the greater world as well. In the legend of Perseus, the Eye is alternately telling of where to find the objects to kill the Gorgon Medusa, or just where to find Medusa herself. In the “Find Your Fate” adventure Indiana Jones And The Eye of the Fates, Dr. Jones is on a quest to find the legendary eye, and may do so, with your help of course.

2. The Golden Fleece

Indiana-Jones-And-The-Golden-Fleece

In antiquity, the Golden Fleece was the fleece of a golden winged ram. In order to ascend to his kingdom, the hero Jason must recover the Golden Fleece by order of the King Pelias. The story was current in the time of Homer and, unlike Ray Harryhausen’s vision, included no mention of any type of army of skeletons. To be fair though, the army of skeletons was a wonderful touch. The Fleece held the promise that any army holding it could not be conquered. In order to stop the Nazis from having an assurance of eternal victory, Jones finds the Fleece in the two-issue comic book Indiana Jones and the Golden Fleece. Man, Indy dealt with Nazis more than we did. Too bad he wasn’t real; if he were, World War II would have been over in a month.

1. The Lost City of Atlantis

indy-atlantis

Ever since the time of Plato, there have been legends associated with the lost city of Atlantis. Indiana Jones and the Fate of Atlantis was released as a comic by Dark Horse in 1991. LucasArts turned around and released a video game associated with Indy finding the lost city, in 1992. Since the franchise was fresh off the success of Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade in 1989, there was a belief by many fans that they were looking at the potential script for Indiana Jones 4. We all found out, a mere 16 years later, that this was not to be the case.

Of course, now Disney owns Lucasfilm, as well as the rights to the Jones character. Who knows what will happen next? Finding the lost underwater city of Atlantis, as well as all its secrets, certainly seemed more plausible than a bunch of crystal skulls that proved aliens existed.

Indiana Jones Artifacts