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Misconceptions About

Native Tribes of

North America

Whether or not you think it’s disrespectful to have Native American terms attached to sports teams or not, television, specifically Westerns may have unintentionally provided us with more than a few misconceptions.

Never mind that the cowboys, gunfighters and saloon girls were mostly figments of fertile imaginations.

North Americans tend to generalize when considering the native tribes that once populated the continent. An idea that they all lived in small villages, in tents of animal skins or small wooden lean-to’s predominates. It is an image presented by Hollywood, television, and the western novels of Louis L’Amour and Zane Grey. The image is inaccurate in most cases. The Native American tribes were of several nations, diverse cultures, and their impact on modern life remains immeasurable.

They changed the way the world ate, and still eats. They were the first society to cultivate corn, potatoes, and the southwestern Native Americans and those of Mexico gave the world chocolate. Though some lived in primitive conditions, others developed large and complex societies, with class systems and forms of government which rivaled those of contemporaneous Europe. Here are 10 misconceptions about the native tribes of North America, and some insights into tribal life when the Europeans first came to the New World.

10. They were primitive tribes of hunter-gatherers

The ancient city of Cahokia alone belies the idea that North American natives were primitive tribes, living in tents of animal skins, or simple wooden huts. Archaeological studies prove Cahokia was a thriving city covering more than six square miles of Illinois land across the Mississippi River from present-day St. Louis. More than 100,000 people lived there four centuries before the coming of Christopher Columbus. Houses were placed in a manner similar to modern American cities, with open public spaces and parks, in a grid marked by wide streets. Evidence of water distribution systems exists in the ruins of the ancient city, which was abandoned around the beginning of the 13th century, for reasons as yet unknown.

The Algonquian tribes of North America built large towns, with multi-storied dwellings in many cases, surrounded by fields of crops and orchards. Game and fish provided a significant portion of their diet, and roving bands from within their own tribe and others often competed for food, and raided the villages of other peoples. The majority of North American natives spent their lives near the place of their birth, unless war or natural disasters forced them to move to more promising areas. There were tribes of nomadic peoples, such as the Apache in the southwestern states and the Plains Indians, but the majority of native tribes occupied lands for centuries, and defended them against their enemies.

9. They had no concept of land ownership

The often cited idea that American Indians had no concept of land ownership and property rights is completely devoid of fact. They did. Native Americans claimed ownership of vast tracts of land, on which they lived, hunted, and farmed. They claimed territorial rights based on conquest, purchase, exchange, and inheritance. They bought and sold land, to each other and to arriving European settlers. Often, in dealing with the latter, they sold property rights to lands which were claimed by other tribes, essentially swindling the Europeans. The mythical sale of Manhattan Island to the Dutch for $24 worth of trinkets was one such instance. The natives (Canarsees) that sold the island to Peter Minuit, for sixty Dutch guilders (about $1,000), conveyed land which was not theirs to begin with. The Weckquaesgeeks tribe controlled the island.

Later, the Cherokee sold the rights to live in the Transylvania region of then-Virginia, now Kentucky, in the Sycamore Shoals treaty. The Cherokee sold lands which were not strictly theirs, it being shared by mutual agreement as hunting grounds with the Shawnee and Wyandot. The Cherokee nation splintered following the treaty, with numerous bands of warriors attacking the ensuing white settlements in the Blue Grass region. Similar events with the Shawnee and allied tribes, such as the Mingo and Miami, occurred in the regions which became Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois. American history is replete with incidents in which native American tribes sold or traded lands in agreements which tribal elements refused to accept, and started wars with the settlers who occupied the lands.

8. The European and later American settlers broke every treaty made with them

The idea of the white settlers scamming the Native Americans, treating with them under false pretenses and violating every treaty made with them out of greed gained precedence in the 1950s and 1960s. The acceptance of the concept coincided with the civil rights movement in the United States. Both sides broke treaties, just as both sides committed atrocities on the other. For example, in 1757 the British garrison at Fort William Henry in New York surrendered to a French and Indian force under Louis-Joseph de Montcalm. Montcalm promised the British and American troops, and several of their families, safe passage. His Indian allies ignored the agreement, and massacred men, women, and children.

Pontiac’s Rebellion, Tecumseh’s Confederation and the Northwest Indian War, and the Black Hawk War, all began with native violations of treaties negotiated and agreed to by tribal elders. Conversely, the Great Sioux War and other conflicts with the western tribes began following encroachments of American settlers on Indian lands in violation of treaties. The history of negotiations and treaties with the American Indian tribes contains incidents of false dealings, misrepresentations, and out and out falsehoods by Indians and whites, going back to the earliest days of colonization of the Americas by the Europeans.

7. They lived in humble dwellings of earth, wood, and animal skins

Well, some tribes did live in such abodes. The tepees, wooden huts, and igloos of Hollywood and history were real. Not all Native Americans lived in crude structures, however, and some resided in dwellings of considerable sophistication. When General John Sullivan commanded the punitive expedition against the Onondaga, Seneca, and Cayuga in 1779, his troops were surprised at the native villages they encountered. They observed well-built homes of stone and wood, many with multiple stories and windows  with real glass. More the forty such villages and large towns were destroyed by the troops during the campaign, breaking the back of the longstanding Iroquois Confederacy.

Elsewhere, American Indians built elaborate homes with an eye towards their architecture. Tribes of the American southwest built roomed homes of mud and adobe. The Navajo constructed permanent homes known as hogans, with wooden frameworks forming a dome, covered with mud and stone. In the southern plains, houses covered with grass protected the inhabitants from the elements. Long before the arrival of the Europeans to the Pacific northwest, Native Americans used cedar planks lashed to wooden frames to erect houses and to serve as drying sheds for the fish they harvested from the region’s streams and the water of the Pacific.

6. They were a largely egalitarian society

Class status among the vast majority of American Indian tribes followed family lines, with some tribes based on matrilineal societies and others patrilineal. For nearly all, status was conferred based on the degree of relationship with tribal leaders. Among the Cherokee, for example, women owned the property belonging to the family. Women brought their husbands into the family, often into the family home. The descent of tribal chiefs in matrilineal clans, and thus control over tribal affairs, was through the mother. Men marrying into the family in matrilineal tribes had no standing within the clan, not even as fathers raising their children. The mother’s brothers, or sons, assumed the role of raising their nieces’ or sisters’ children.

Among the northern plains tribes, particularly the Lakota and Dakota, the longstanding myth of women serving as humble squaws, subservient to their husbands, is false. Lakota women and girls were trained in the arts of hunting and war, and frequently fought enemies in defense of the home, though they seldom joined raiding parties. Their standing within the community depended on their abilities to serve the tribe, as did that of the men. In matrilineal tribes the male leader, known as the chief, remained in practice subservient to his mother, by tradition and by unwritten law.

5. The Southwestern tribes roamed the deserts and mountains

Some did, particularly after the horse was introduced to the continent when the Spaniards arrived. The Apache and Comanche in particular adapted to the horse for both hunting and raiding enemies. Centuries before that event, the Ancestral Pueblo peoples resided in the area now known as the Four Corners, where Utah, Colorado, New Mexico, and Arizona meet. Eight centuries before the birth of Jesus Christ they cultivated corn, in the form of maize, to supplement their diet of game. They built irrigation systems to support their crops which included waters routed from the Rio Grande, Colorado, and Little Colorado Rivers. Their irrigation systems allowed the planting of beans and squash to supplement their crops of corn.

The Apache and Navajo roamed the region, hunting the area to exhaustion over the centuries, and leaving to pursue the game. The Ancestral Pueblos endured several extended droughts, followed by flooding which destroyed much of their farmlands and irrigation systems. By the time the Spanish arrived, most of them were gone from the region, having fled the area and the Apache and Navajo raiders. The Spaniards encountered their relatively few descendants, still living in the multi-story dwelling complexes which the Europeans called pueblos, or villages. Most were located along the rivers which had once fed the complex system of canals and dams watering their crops.

4. The New World was sparsely settled at the time of Columbus

When the first Europeans arrived at what they soon called the New World, they encountered spaces like nothing ever seen before. Vast virgin forests stretched to nearly the water’s edge in some areas. Others found open plains and what they believed, and reported, as small populations of natives. In Meso-america the Spaniards and Portuguese encountered the cities of the Mayan, Incan, and Aztec civilizations. In North America the early European arrivals reported the Indians living in relatively small villages and towns. With no idea of the size and diversity of the North American continent, rulers and scholars in Europe believed the New World sparsely populated by uncivilized peoples, as wild as the game which teemed in the woods.

In truth, between 60 and 70 million natives lived on the North American continent, from the Arctic Circle to its southernmost extremity. Numerous cultures emerged on the continent before the European arrival, including the mound builders, the Confederation of the Iroquois, the Hopi and Pueblo, and the Inuit in the north. The various Indian nations and clans were connected by a complex system of trails through the eastern woods and on the plains, cut by migrating buffalo. Elaborate diplomatic relationships developed, with alliances and agreements over the use of hunting grounds, water rights, and tribal property. Trade between tribes, such as furs and game for crops and weapons, was in place. The Europeans understood none of it, nor the extent of the population in North America which exceeded that of the continent from whence they came.

3. The North American natives did not engage in warfare with each other

Beginning in the 1960s and continuing through the present day, a myth over inter-tribal warfare among the American tribes gained acceptance. The myth essentially blames the Europeans for introducing warfare to North America. Its proponents claim the native tribes did not make war on each other, other than in demonstrations of courage by touching an enemy with a coup stick. The claim is utter nonsense, archaeological evidence and the various tribes’ own folklore describe centuries of warfare between tribes across the entire continent. Cannibalism among the North American tribes was ritualized, eating the flesh of enemy warriors killed in battle, or tortured as prisoners, was recorded contemporaneously by witnesses.

The western plains saw numerous wars between the various tribes competing for the resources offered by the land. The nomadic tribes followed the buffalo, their chief source of meat, furs, and tools manufactured from the bones. In the eastern woodlands, European explorers found many of the tribes living in villages and towns protected by palisades, and extensive alarm systems in place to warn of an impending encroachment. The completely peaceful, idyllic existence described by some required neither. Warfare between tribes did not end with a united attempt to wipe out the arriving Europeans, instead many tribes allied themselves with the new arrivals, happy to have their superior weapons available for use against ancient enemies.

2. Their religions were based on a Great Spirit

Hollywood created the myth of all Indians worshiping a “Great Spirit,” though they had other gods and spiritual entities as well. The North American Indians had as many religious systems as tribes, and differing ways of worshiping. Some, such as the Pueblo, worshiped the crops as they grew in the fields. Some tribes believed spirits controlled the weather and developed rituals to appease them. Nearly all worshiped the sun in some form or another, as well as the moon and other celestial bodies. Omens, revealed through trances achieved by various means, bore great spiritual significance, and affected the direction of personal and tribal affairs.

The Iroquois did believe in a Great Spirit, the creator of all things, including the spirit which flowed through all things. The Mohawk, like many eastern tribes, believed in all existence imbued with spirit. Nearly all the North American Indians held similar beliefs, creating religions based on animism – the idea that all things possess life in some form, and hence are animated. The belief extended to rocks, water, the weather, animals, birds, trees, and even sounds. The spirits in control could be either evil or good, with existence a continuous struggle between the extremes. Many eastern tribes believed the smoke from tobacco carried messages to the spirits, and smoking was a major part of religious ceremonies.

1. They grew only simple crops to supplement their diets of meat and fish

Native American tribes are connected to maize, a type of corn which they grew so extensively it came to be known as Indian corn. They also grew beans of several types, gourds to serve as utensils, pumpkins for food, and other forms of squash. Along the eastern seaboard Indians husbanded tobacco crops from Florida to the Connecticut Valley. Through time, myths emerged about the Indians which led to the belief they sustained themselves with game and fish, supplemented by just a few berries and nuts harvested from the forests. Not so. Many Indian villages had extensive farms, with the crops grown communally.

As with all farmers, crops grown depended on the local climate and soil conditions. The Spanish in the south were astonished to see Indians eating freely of tomatoes, at the time believed in Europe to be poisonous. In the southwest, progressive farming techniques such as terracing and crop rotation were applied by Indian farmers. Indian crops included potatoes and sweet potatoes, several types of peppers, peanuts, avocados, sunflowers, and wild rice. Most Indian villages had communal storehouses to store crops for the winter months. Orchards cultivated by Indians provided cherries, apples, and crab-apples. They also resorted freely to native plants for greens, including dandelion and chicory.


Not Your Cleveland Indians

WIF Into History

Native Americans – How Kimosabbe

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Top 10 Common Misconceptions

About Native Americans

Native Americans have been featured in many different forms of popular culture. Unfortunately, since most people only know of them through said popular culture, the worldwide perception of them includes an incredible amount of errors and misconceptions. This is made more difficult by the fact that there are so few of them left, making it difficult for them to have a voice and dispel the myths surrounding them. Myths such as …

10. They Want To Be Called Native Americans

native-american-tribes

While “Native American” is often used in the USA as a politically correct term, it is not accepted by many actual natives. In Canada, they have used terms such as “first nations;” while it is less offensive because it does not refer to them as “Americans”, it has still not been completely accepted by the native people.

If you shouldn’t call them Native Americans, what should you call them then? Unfortunately, as with so many things in life, there is no simple answer to this question. It is unlikely that all of the natives will ever agree on a scholarly term to be used for all of them, because there are hundreds of different tribes and they all have different opinions. Ultimately, any PC word is a catch-all term, used mainly when speaking very generally. In truth, most would prefer you use the name of their tribe, of which there are untold numbers. So get to studying.

9. They Were War-Hungry Savages

savages-stereotype

In popular media, the stereotype of a Native American is easily recognizable: tomahawk, bow and arrow, feathers in the hair, and a thirst to scalp you. The thing is, however, that many Native American tribes were very peaceful. And some of the tribes who went to war only did so after the Europeans came to America and upset the balance of things, often trying to take land from the native people who had a much different idea of land ownership. The length and depth of the propaganda to make the natives look savage was incredible, and it worked completely. The Europeans invaded native lands and yet, even today, the most common image of a Native American is a warlike stereotype.

8. They Weren’t Nearly As Advanced As Europeans

herman-comic

Another common misconception is that Native Americans were primitive people, and many people view their society as similar to that of a third-world country. This view could not be farther from the truth; the Native Americans had a very advanced society with medicine, trading, farming, and many other things that were common in European culture. They just did things differently, and it is important to understand that different does not necessarily mean primitive. The French had a fair amount of respect for the natives, and mainly traded furs with them; they understood that the natives were not lesser people than them. In fact, they understood that there were some things that the natives had a better grasp of than they did.

7. They Were A Bunch Of Drug Abusers

indian-boy-peace-pipe

Another popular myth is the “peace pipe.” Just about every movie, book or TV show that features interactions with Native Americans seems to require that someone smokes a pipe with the natives. Now, they do sometimes smoke a drug called peyote, though it is not something that is generally used for recreational purposes. Peyote is more a ritual drug, used mainly in religious services and other similar applications, for this reason, it is actually legal for Native Americans to use it in the USA, just not anyone else.

6. They All Lived In Teepees

Blackfoot-teepee

If you ask most people where Native Americans live, they would probably tell you that they live in a teepee. However, again, this is really not accurate at all. Even before so many of the natives were killed, a good many of them did not live in teepees at all. There were many different forms of dwellings used by different tribes in different regions. Teepees were mainly used by natives who needed to travel regularly, because they were easy to break down and take with them, but many tribes had much more permanent dwellings.

5. Their Medicine Was Primitive

medicine-man

The first image that comes to mind for many people when they think of Native American healthcare is a medicine man dressed in very strange, colorful garb performing bizarre rituals, mainly because of movies and their knack for making up literally everything and selling it as fact. Due to popular culture, many people think of Native American medicine as primitive, but when the Europeans first came to America, their medicine really wasn’t any more advanced than that of the natives, just different. Also, many of the herbal remedies used by the Native American people have been found with recent study to be very effective, and some drugs were only discovered because scientists decided to test some of the plants the natives had been using for ages.

4. There Is Indian Royalty

indian-princess

This is a fairly funny one. Many people will claim that they have an ancestor who was an “Indian princess”, usually evoking laughs or other similar reactions if a real native is around to hear it. The reason for this one might be because of Disney movies, or poor translating, or possibly an old derogatory name for light-skinned African-American women. While we don’t know for sure where this misconception came from, it definitely is not true. Chiefs were not ordained from birth; they were generally chosen for their excellence, and their family might have been well-treated but they were not royalty. Such distinctions simply do not exist in Native American culture.

3. They Worship Nature

indian-sun-worship

Many people are under the impression that Native Americans worship nature. While there is a certain amount of truth to this, it isn’t really accurate. Native Americans have incredible respect for the Earth and all of nature, but they do not worship it specifically. Some Natives would worship a corn god, for instance, but they were worshiping a god who would help with the yield of the crop. They were not worshiping the corn itself.

Also, some natives such as the Iroquois believe in a “Great Spirit,” and also believe in another spirit that is somewhat like the Christian idea of Satan. Native American religious beliefs are extremely in tune with nature, but they clearly do not worship it.

2. They Don’t Have To Pay Taxes

tatanka-vs-irs

As proof that many people still have ugly feelings toward Native Americans, even after how marginalized they have become, there are myths that they are living on government handouts, and do not have to pay taxes. Under certain circumstances, in some states, which usually require some combination of living and working on their reservation, some Native Americans are exempt from paying state taxes. However, all Native Americans must pay federal income taxes, and have had to do so as long as they have been citizens of the USA. The truth is that most Native Americans are extremely poor, and are getting little if any help from the federal or state government.

1. They All Still Live On Reservations

indian-reservation

Many people are under the impression that all Native Americans live on “Indian reservations.” As you might have already guessed, that is not the case. As of 2008, around 40% of Native Americans were living on reservations, which of course is not even half of the population. In addition, there are currently 334 reservations, and about half of all the Native Americans who live on them are concentrated in the ten largest ones. The conditions in these reservations are not particularly good much of the time, so it is not surprising that many do not wish to live there.

Native Americans – How Kimosabbe