Quantum Physics Phun – WIF Science

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Implications of

Quantum Physics

Quantum Physics has given a lot of amazing things to humanity in the last few decades. From the technology with which you can track cheating spouses, to accurately scanning broken bones and muscles in the hospital, there are actually many practical applications of Quantum Physics. But if you believe the words of those nerdy scientists who are actually studying the discipline, many more revolutionary discoveries are yet to come (and that doesn’t just include more weird sci-fi movies).

 In the most basic of terms, Quantum Physics fundamentally studies the nature and rules of the tiniest known particles of the universe: those that actually make up the atoms and are broadly called sub-atomic particles. However, much of the discipline is still a mystery, even among the most experienced of Physicists, with many calling it a ‘weird science’.

10. Nuclear Fusion Power Plants

Nuclear fusion in the sun is actually the reason why life exists on earth (and also the reason why Mercury is basically just a lifeless roasted rock). The abundance of Hydrogen atoms in the sun, along with the heat and pressure ensures their constant fusion into Helium atoms, emitting radioactive energy in the process which comes to earth in the form of sunlight. Quantum Tunneling is among the fundamental processes with which fusion occurs in the form in the form of chain reactions.

Scientists and governments are currently trying to mimic this process on Earth, for which the services of Physicists and Engineers with advanced knowledge of Quantum Physics are being employed. Although the dream of powering the electricity grids with nuclear fusion remains a dream, scientists expect that new breakthroughs in the understanding of Quantum Mechanics will bring the dream closer.

9. Perfect Timekeeping

Whether it’s about syncing several space-stations and satellites circling the planet or getting a perfect time-reading from the Mariana trench or Mount Everest, Atomic Clocks, utilizing the principles of Quantum Mechanics are already making enormous contributions to humanity.

However, with the demand for greater accuracy increasing, more advanced Quantum Clocks are expected to be extremely crucial in helping to meet these goals. So, from ultra-precise self-driving cars to space travel, the principles of Quantum Mechanics will be extremely important in setting the pace for the future of humanity.

8. Extreme Computing

While computing technologies have come a long way in the last century, artificial intelligence is only just beginning to catch up the abilities of the human brain. Today’s Silicon-chips based computing technologies are soon expected to be insufficient in handling the demands of the future, where machines and humans are expected to be interconnected in a vast network that will be several times larger than today’s overall internet infrastructure. In this regard, Quantum Computing is currently being identified as the prime technology to replace the current one. The technology basically manipulates the natural properties of the atom to store and process data in real time.

In fact, experimental models of Quantum Computers have already yielded enthusiastic results, although scaling the same to economically feasible units have proven to be rather challenging. However, scientists expect that the technology could start dominating the global landscape by as soon as 2030. With the technology, data processing abilities are expected to make such great leaps that calculation that current take supercomputers over two years may be completed by Quantum Computers in a few seconds.

7. Intergalactic Travel

Humans are still a long way away from establishing habitable outposts on other planetary bodies. However, if you believe the words of well-known futurists (like Dr. Micho Kaku), our hopes of conquering the final frontier will depend a lot on our knowledge of Quantum Mechanics. While conventional technologies may not be able to deliver enough speed for humans to even colonize other planets in the Solar System, astronomers and space-travel enthusiasts frequently are very hopeful about the possibilities offered by Quantum Physics.

The spaceships of today already use Quantum Clocks, while the use of Quantum Computing is expected to bring humans even closer to perfecting future spaceships. Experts believe that the better understanding of Quantum Entanglement will ultimately be the key to perfecting intergalactic travel across wormholes.

6. Extremely Secure Cryptography

With hacking and online security identified as one of the most pressing concerns of this century, the demand for more secure cryptography is high. From banking transactions to personal messages, billions of exchanges of data every minute are supposed to be kept secure. But this has proven to be something that’s not very easy to achieve with existing technologies. It is here that Quantum Cryptography has been identified as the silver bullet against online security threats. Basically, the technology manipulates photons to store and share information on a subatomic level. In fact, the technology has already been successfully applied in several instances (like voting and satellite data).

Major technology companies are already spending their resources on Quantum Cryptography to scale it and make it more accessible for the technologies of the future.

5. Incredibly Detailed Optic Devices

Today, one of the most widespread application of Quantum Mechanics is happening in the field of optics. The most advanced microscopes in the world apply Quantum Tunneling in identifying the smallest objects like DNA and electrons. In fact, most of the modern microscopic innovations and discoveries owe their existence in some way to Quantum Mechanics.

In the future, the most accurate telescopes are expected to make use of advanced Quantum principles as well.

4. Tackling Diseases and Ailments in the Human Body

Over the years, the principles of Quantum Mechanics has played a major role in the development of modern Radiography machines and MRI scanners. In the near future, innovative technologies developed with the application of Quantum Mechanics are set to bring even more massive changes in healthcare.

Experts have identified nanotechnology and quantum computing technologies as the tools that will help deal with threats like cancers and organ failures more effectively in the future. Reliable researches have also pointed out that these technologies will also help the human body fight more effectively against diseases in the future.

3. Finding Evidence of Parallel Universes and the Multiverse

The concept of Parallel Universe has been one of the most fascinating subjects for fans of science-fiction. Indeed, the concept is still broadly considered to be a theory rather than fact. While physicists and astronomers in general are divided over the existence of parallel universes, many well-known scientists have stood behind the concept. On one occasion, Stephen Hawking theorized that black holes could in fact be portals to another universe.

Meanwhile, renowned scientist Brian Greene believes that the concepts laid by the String Theory can point out to the fact that Parallel Universes or Multiverses can indeed exist. Scientists like Hawking and Greene have pointed out that with a better understanding of Quantum Mechanics and with more advanced tools in the future, we may indeed discover sooner or later that the universe isn’t lonely after all.

2. Our Concept of Time and Space

If Einstein’s theory of relativity was already too complex for you, lately modern physicists have theorized ever more ‘outrageous’ concepts today which will undoubtedly confuse you even more. Firstly, in the definition of space, modern physicists are in the consensus that even the seemingly empty parts of the universe aren’t actually empty at all. These supposedly empty parts of the space are held by things the scientists and astronomers call ‘dark matter’ and ‘dark energy’. These two things together is estimated to make up around 95% of the entire universe.

On the other hand, modern physicists consider time to be something of an illusion. In fact, the very concepts of any event as a past, present or future occurrence is refuted, with the principle that reality is timeless. Moreover, the same scientists also entertain the idea that the linear concept of time is incompatible in quantum scale.

So basically, if we believe the words of quantum mechanics enthusiasts, what we thought was empty isn’t actually empty (i.e. space) and what we thought was an undisputed reality doesn’t actually exist (i.e. time). If this concept doesn’t shock you, then you probably don’t exist.

1. Consciousness Makes Reality

What if reality is the result of an accumulative consciousness? Or what if reality didn’t create you, but in fact, you created reality?

Of late, the term that incites the most vigorous debates in the world of Theoretical Physics is consciousness. While there is a basic consensus among Theoretical Physicists that the state of matter at the quantum level can differ to an extent depending upon the interpretation towards it, some scientists like Robert Lanza, Roger Penrose and Stuart Hameroff have gone a step further and theorized that consciousness actually defines how matter actually acts at the quantum level. Lanza, for instance, considers that time and space are mere tools that are applied by mind to interpret the information of the universe. Hameroff and Penrose have, on the other hand. theorized that consciousness is actually the consequence of quantum gravity effects in vibrating microtubules that are present in the neurons.

Hence, if you would want to believe academics proposing these notions, you are right now creating reality and living in it (like spiders creating their own webs to catch themselves in).


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Theories About the Universe – WIF Space

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Mind-Blowing Theories

About the Universe

Image result for the universe

As we mentioned in our first list about mind bending theories about the universe, the universe is a vast and mysterious place. For centuries, people have looked out into space and tried to explain why we’re here and where we came from. While it may take even more centuries before any of those questions are answered, it doesn’t mean scientists don’t have any theories.

We should also point out that these are just theories, so at times, some theories may not align with each other, or even contradict each other.

10. Why is Dark Matter so Hard to Detect?

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Throughout this list, we will talk about something called dark matter. Dark matter makes up about 27 percent of the universe and about 83 percent of all matter. It is invisible because light doesn’t bounce off of it and it has a gravitational pull on regular matter, meaning it affects the movements of galaxies and galactic clusters. While it does have a gravitational effect, dark matter can pass through regular matter almost undetected. For all of these reasons, dark matter hasn’t been detected yet, but physicists are sure it exists.

One question is: why is it so hard to detect dark matter in Earth-based experiments? One possible answer comes from a group of particle physicists called Lattice Strong Dynamics Collaboration. In their simulation, they found that dark matter might have noticeable interactions with ordinary matter if they are both in conditions that are similar to the start of the universe, which is extremely high-temperature plasma. If their simulation is true, that means in the early days of the universe, dark matter might have been observable.

The good news is that these types of conditions can now be recreated in the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. Researchers are awaiting a chance to test the theory and for the first time, dark matter could be detected. If their theory is correct, it would suggest that before the universe cooled, there was a type of balancing act between matter and dark matter before they spread across the universe.

9. Dark Matter Killed the Dinosaurs

An asteroid is the most likely culprit for what killed the dinosaurs. However, what really kicked off the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction 66 million years ago is still debated. A very far out and cosmic theory comes from physicist Lisa Randall is that it was an impact event that was caused by dark matter.

The basis of the theory goes back to the 1980s, when paleontologists David Raup and Jack Sepkoski found evidence that every 26 million years since the Great Dying of the Permian-Triassic, (which happened about 252 million years ago and 96 percent of life was wiped out), there has been a great mass extinction. Upon further research, going back a half a billion years ago, it appears that Earth suffered some type of cataclysmic event approximately every 30 million years, give or take a few million years.

However, scientists have never really sure why cataclysmic events would happen on a timetable like that. Randall’s theory is that dark matter is involved. Dark matter is believed to be scattered throughout the universe and it is used as scaffolding on which galaxies, including our home the Milky Way, are built. As our solar system rotates around the Milky Way, it “floats” and at times, it bobs like a cork in the water. And this bob happens about every 30 million years.

When we bob, our solar system may encounter a disk of dark matter. The disk would need to be one-tenth the thickness of the Milky Way’s visible disk of stars, and have a density of at least one solar mass per square light-year.

Matter and dark matter can pass through each other, but dark matter can affect regular matter through gravity. The result is that when some matter floating in space comes into contact with dark matter, it could send things flying throughout the universe, which ultimately hit Earth.

If Randall’s theory is true, dark matter could be responsible for major parts of the formation of the universe.

8. Life Spread Across the Universe Like an Epidemic

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When talking about the universe, there’s one question that always pops up: is there intelligent life other than our own? Or are we just alone here? Well, scientists wonder about this too, and currently they are looking at how life, including our own, came into existence.

According to a research paper from the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, the most logical answer is that life spread from star to star, like an epidemic. The concept that life spread from planet to planet and star to star is called panspermia, and of course, if you’ve seen Prometheus, that concept is a major plot point.

If life passed from star to star, that means that the Milky Way could be full of pockets of life. If the theory is correct, then it is possible that other planets in the Milky Way may host life as well.

Another interesting thing they found in their calculations is that life could be spread by microscopic organisms that hitched a ride on an asteroid, or it even could have been spread by an intelligent being or beings.

7. Why is the Universe Made of Matter?

Matter is everything that takes up space and has weight, and the opposite of matter is called anti-matter. When matter and anti-matter touch, they annihilate each other, which is exactly what happened at the start of the universe and helped drive its expansion. At the beginning of the universe, there should have been an equal amount of matter and anti-matter. However, if there was an equal amount of both matter and anti-matter, they would have canceled each other and the universe would have ceased to exist. This has led physicists to believe that there was slightly more matter than anti-matter. An amount as small as an extra particle of matter for every 10 billion antimatter particles would have been enough for matter to spread out across the universe.

The problem was that while physicists knew that there was more matter, they didn’t know why. That was until 2008, when researchers at the University of Chicago were observing subatomic particles that lived very short lives called B mesons. The researchers, who won the Nobel Prize in Physics for their discovery, found that that B mesons and anti-B mesons decay differently from one another. This means that it is possible that after the annihilations in the start of the universe, the B mesons and anti-B mesons decayed differently, leaving enough matter behind to create all the stars, planets, and even you and everything you touch, including the air you breathe.

6. Disorder Made Life Possible

Entropy essentially measures the amount of disorder in a system. If something is high in entropy that means there is more disorder, and low entropy means there is more organization. An example to visualize this is with Legos. A Lego house would have low entropy and a box of random, disconnected pieces would have high entropy.

What’s interesting is that entropy may be the reason that life exists in the first place, which doesn’t make a whole lot of sense if you take a look at the complexity of something like the human brain, which is the pinnacle of order.

 Nevertheless, according to a theory by assistant MIT professor Jeremy England, higher entropy may be responsible for life in the universe. England says that, under ideal conditions, a random group of molecules can self-organize themselves to efficiently use more energy in their environment. How entropy plays into this is when energy is added to a system. The molecules jump and bounce off each other. If a few were to clump together, and energy was used more efficiently, it would continue to hold together, collecting more molecules, until eventually enough molecules clump together to become a life form. However, if there wasn’t a high entropy state, the molecules would have never been bouncing off each other. Therefore they would have never clumped together and brought about life.

This theory still has a lot of testing to go through. However, if England is correct, then an expert suggested that his name would be remembered the same way we remember Charles Darwin.

5. The Universe Has No Beginning

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The prevailing theory of the start of our universe is that over 13.8 billion years ago, from a point of singularity, the Big Bang gave birth to the universe and it has been expanding ever since.

The Big Bang was first theorized in 1927 and the model is based on Albert Einstein’s theory of general relativity. The problem is that there are some holes in Einstein’s theory; mainly that the laws of physics break before reaching singularity. Another big problem is that the other dominant theory in physics, quantum mechanics, doesn’t reconcile with general relativity. Also, neither relativity nor quantum mechanics explain or account for dark matter. This means that although the Big Bang is one of the best theories about how the universe started, it may not be correct.

An alternative theory is that the universe was never at the point of singularity and there was no Big Bang. Instead, the universe is infinite and doesn’t have a beginning or an end. The researchers arrived at this theory by applying quantum correction terms to Einstein’s theory of general relativity using an older model of interpreting quantum mechanics called Bohmian Mechanics. And no, we’re not exactly sure what that means, but good for them.

Their method of testing the theory will also help account for dark matter. If their theory is correct that the universe is infinite, it would mean that the universe has pockets of a superfluid filled with theoretical particles, like gravitons and axioms. If the superfluid matches the distribution of dark matter, then it’s possible that the universe is infinite.

4. The Universe Should Have Never Existed

Science fiction writer Ray Bradbury once wrote, “We are an impossibility in an impossible universe.” And according to a model based on the Higgs boson particle from King’s College London suggests he couldn’t have been more right, because the universe shouldn’t exist.

The problem is that 10-36 seconds after the Big Bang to sometime between 10-33 and 10-32 seconds, the universe underwent something called cosmic inflation, which was a rapid expansion of the universe. If that is true, the inflation would have caused quantum fluctuations, or jolts, in the energy field. These jolts would have been so strong that they would have pushed the universe out of the Higgs field, which is responsible for giving particles its mass, and the universe would cease to exist. Of course, since you’re reading this, you know that this model isn’t correct. So why does the universe exist when it shouldn’t?

One possibility is that the findings are wrong. Another is that there may be some new physics or particles that have yet to be discovered. However, until we figure it out, we should just feel lucky to be here when we theoretically shouldn’t.

3. The Universe Started Off One Dimensional

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A commonly held belief about the universe is that the Big Bang was an exploding sphere, but another theory posits that for the first thousand-trillionth of a second of the Big Bang, it was actually a one dimensional line. Energy would race back and forth before creating a fabric, which is the second dimension. Then it morphed into three dimensions, which is the world we see.

If the model is correct, it would help address a few problems with the standard model of particle physics, such as the incompatibility between quantum mechanics and general relativity, and cosmic inflation. However, if this theory is true, it would only lead to more mysteries, like what mechanisms were used to make the universe morph into the different dimensions?

2. How Many Dimensions Are There?

In the last entry, we talked about how the universe may have evolved into three-dimensions; however there are many more dimensions than that. According to Superstring Theory, there are at least 10.

Here is how it works: the first dimension is just a single line, the second dimension is height, the third is depth, and fourth is duration. Where it starts to get a little bit weird is dimension five. That is where the multiverse theory comes into play. In the fifth dimension there is a universe that is very much like our own and we would be able to measure similarities and differences. The sixth dimension is a plane where there are parallel universes with all the same starting conditions, so if our universe started with the Big Bang, so did theirs. The seventh dimension is a plane full of worlds with different starting conditions.

Now, if all that wasn’t confusing enough, the eighth dimension is where things start to get really complicated and humans have problems understanding it. Basically, the eighth dimension is all possible worlds, all with different starting conditions, and they branch out infinitely. Of course, things only get more brain melting from there. In the ninth dimension, there are all possible universes that start with different initial conditions and the laws of physics of these universes can be completely different. In the 10th and final dimension anything is possible, and that is just something humans cannot even fathom.

1. We’re Living in the Distant Past of a Parallel Universe

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The term “time’s arrow” was first introduced in 1927 and it aptly describes the flow of time. Humans perceive it as always going forward and it also obeys the second law of thermodynamics so entropy always increases; eggs are cracked and scrambled and they never unscramble and reform inside the shell.

The problem is that if time only goes forward, many of the best equations about how the universe works, like James Clerk Maxwell’s theory of electrodynamics, Isaac Newton’s law of universal gravitation, Einstein’s special and general relativity or quantum mechanics, would be incorrect. However, if time ran forwards and backwards, then they would all work perfectly. One way that this is possible is that at the Big Bang, two parallel universes were started. One where time moves forward, and a parallel one where time flows backwards.

The reasoning is that, if entropy increases in our universe, then when the universe started, it would have begun in a low-entropy and highly ordered state. That could be the end of another universe. That universe would start at the end and time would flow backwards, while ours flows forward.

If we could see the other universe, we would see time going backwards and we would probably see into the future of our universe (presuming that we’re not past the middle age of the universe) and we’d be living in the parallel universe’s distant past. That is, of course, if we’re not the reality that is living in reverse and don’t realize it.


Theories About the Universe

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