Constance Caraway P.I. ~ Episode 15

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Constance Caraway P.I. ~ Episode 15

“Mastadon is misspelled,” Fanny seldom lets on that she is a great speller…

“We are looking for your friend and colleague who left the grounds undetected.”

“Not exactly true,” Kamen had to completely vet Constance and Fanny, before allowing them to view secret government material. “He had been using the IBM Supercomputer to research ancient animals, specifically from the Ice Age.”

“You mean like why men behave like Neanderthals.” Fanny rarely lets her science knowledge bleed into casual conversation.

“No, there was a picture of a Mastodon on his desk,” Martin hands them a lithograph with the handwritten word, all in lower case scribble: mastadon.

“Mastadon is misspelled,” Fanny seldom lets on that she is a great speller.

“You are correct Miss Fanny! Why didn’t I notice that?! It’s mastodon with an “o” not “a”.”

The power of observation, an acquired talent, is what makes Constance and Fanny perfect for the field they have chosen.

“Willard would not have made that mistake,” he contends.

“That’s a pretty weak clue, but any clue sure beats a handful of nothing.” Constance racks her brain for their next possible move.

“There is one more thing.” Martin Kamen fires up the small monitor in front of them, the view screen for the supercomputer which occupies a room the size of the Argonne cafeteria. “There are remnants of a de-crypted memorandum from the Pope:


(Concerning Some False Opinions Threatening to Undermine the Foundations of Catholic Doctrine)

Pope Pius XII

Encyclical Promulgated on 12 August 1950


  1. We must resist these fictitious tenets of evolution.


“Heady stuff, even for a scientist.”

“Is Mr. Libby a religious man?”

“Not that I know of, but then again religion and science make strange bedfellows.”

“… ‘fictitious tenets of evolution’, that implies that it fundamentally opposes the foundational dogma of Creationism.” Though not an outspoken proponent of all things religious, Constance Caraway has deep roots in the Baptist Church, her father having been an elder at the Tallahassee Baptist Temple; but don’t remind her of the night of her violin solo, at the 6P service on Resurrection Sunday in 1921.

Constance Caraway P.I.

Forever Mastadon

page 15

Affect vs. Effect – WIF Grammatical Confusion

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WIF Grammar-001

Affect vs. Effect Grammar Rules

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Knowing when to use affect or effect in a sentence can be a challenge. These words are examples of homonyms. Homonyms are words that are similar, but have very different meanings. Other examples of homonyms are two/to/too, accept/except, and there/their/they’re.

Meaning of Affect and Effect

In order to understand the correct situation in which to use the word affect or effect, the first thing one must do is have a clear understanding of what each word means.

  • Affect is a verb. It means to produce a change in or influence something.
  • Effect is a noun that can also be used as a verb. It means a change that occurred. When an “s” is added, “effects” means personal belongings.

Grammar Rules

Now that we have the two definitions, how do we know which word to use? Here are a few suggestions to keep in mind:


1. Affect can be used as a noun to describe facial expression.

  • Example: The young man with schizophrenia had a flat affect.
  • Example: The woman took the news of her husband’s sudden death with little affect.

2. Affect can also be used as a verb. Use it when trying to describe influencing someone or something rather than causing it.

  • Example: How does the crime rate affect hiring levels by local police forces?
  • Example: The weather conditions will affect the number of people who come to the county fair this year.


1. If you are talking about a result, then use the word “effect” as a noun.

  • Example: What effect did the loss have on the team?

2. It is appropriate to use the word “effect” if one of these words is used immediately before the word: “into”, “on”, “take”, “the”, “any”, “an” as well as “or.”

  • Example: The prescribed medication had an effect on the patient’s symptoms.
  • Example: In analyzing a situation, it is important to take the concepts of cause and effect into consideration.

3. If you want to describe something that was caused or brought about, the right word to use is effect; but, as shown in this example, it would be a verb.

  • Example: The new manager effected some positive changes in the office. (This means that the new manager caused some positive changes to take place in the office.)

Examples of Affect

  • An early frost in Florida can affect the orange crop negatively.
  • The boss’s negativity affected all the workers.
  • Colorado was affected by severe flooding last summer.
  • Not winning didn’t affect her as much as I thought it would.
  • Your opinions do not affect my decision to move.
  • Smoking tobacco can adversely affect your lungs and blood flow.
  • The memoirs affected me so deeply I was brought to tears.
  • Television can negatively affect young, developing minds.
  • Hugs can affect a person’s immune system in a positive way.
  • Congress will pass a law that will greatly affect the economy.
  • The crime rate in that area will affect the housing market.
  • How much a student studies will affect his grade point average.
  • Reducing our carbon footprint will affect the environment.
  • Petting a cat or a dog affects blood pressure in a positive manner.
  • Raising the minimum wage affects many people living in poverty.
  • Movies have the power to affect people’s thinking.
  • Positive beliefs affect the healing time of patients recovering from surgery.
  • Going to war affects everyone in the country.
  • That teacher affected my self image and helped me believe in myself.
  • The eulogy affected all the visitors in a profound way.

Examples of Effect

  • Transportation costs have a direct effect on the cost of retail goods.
  • The effect of the medicine on her illness was surprisingly fast.
  • The new law prohibiting texting while driving will go into effect tomorrow.
  • Graffiti added a strong negative effect to the aesthetics of a neighborhood.
  • How fast you drive will have an effect on your gas mileage.
  • In her will, she left all her personal effects to her daughter.
  • A dark color of paint will have the effect of making the room seem smaller.
  • One of the side effects of this particular drug is blurred vision.
  • The special effects in movies today are aided by computers.
  • The speech had an effect on increasing attendance.
  • The effect of her singing off-key was apparent on people’s faces.
  • Does seeing a film about car crashes have an effect on teenagers?
  • News broadcasts can have a huge effect on public opinion.
  • The nose job had an effect on her appearance, but at what cost?
  • A good night’s sleep has a positive effect of your whole day.
  • Creepy music in a movie gives the effect that something is about to happen.
  • Two effects of her promotion were a raise in salary and a new office.
  • How will you tell if the medication has taken effect?
  • Complex carbohydrates will have an effect on your athletic performance.

Affect vs. Effect

– WIF Grammatical Confusion